Cover: Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) image of isolated Drosophila wild-type macrophages stained for endogenous WASH protein (red), F-actin (green, phalloidin) and nuclei (blue, DAPI). WASH localizes to F-actin-coated endosomal structures in the perinuclear region of the immune cells. See article by B. M. Nagel et al. (pp. 344–359).
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IN THIS ISSUE
CELL SCIENTISTS TO WATCH
CELL SCIENCE AT A GLANCE
The mucosal barrier at a glance
Summary: This Cell Science at a Glance article presents the current understanding of the molecular components and pathways that regulate mucosal barriers in health and disease.
The why, when and how of lipid droplet diversity
Summary: We discuss the intriguing diversification of lipid droplets between and within cells and propose the early steps of lipid droplet biogenesis to determine the later lipid droplet fate.
Sideroflexin 3 is an α-synuclein-dependent mitochondrial protein that regulates synaptic morphology
Summary: Comparative proteomics revealed that mitochondrial proteins are a major target for α-synuclein. Sideroflexin 3 (SFXN3) was identified as one α-synuclein-dependent mitochondrial protein capable of altering synaptic morphology in vivo.
Drosophila Sulf1 is required for the termination of intestinal stem cell division during regeneration
Highlighted Article: The heparan sulfate 6-O endosulfatase Sulf1 is required for proper inactivation of Drosophila intestinal stem cell division during regeneration by modulating mitogenic signaling pathways.
Drosophila WASH is required for integrin-mediated cell adhesion, cell motility and lysosomal neutralization
Summary: Drosophila wash was originally described as an essential gene. We show that wash mutant flies are viable and fertile, and that WASH has conserved functions in integrin receptor recycling and lysosome neutralization.
Diverting CERT-mediated ceramide transport to mitochondria triggers Bax-dependent apoptosis
Highlighted Article: This work shows that mitochondrial translocation of ER ceramides specifically induces apoptosis and highlights a novel approach for probing compartment-specific functions of these biomolecules as key determinants of cell fate.
Integration of transmembrane domains is regulated by their downstream sequences
Summary: Integration of transmembrane domains through the Sec61 translocon is not only dependent on its own sequence and hydrophobicity, but also on the conformational properties of the downstream sequence.
Retromer- and WASH-dependent sorting of nutrient transporters requires a multivalent interaction network with ANKRD50
Highlighted Article: Here, we investigate the function of the completely uncharacterized protein ANKRD50 showing that it is involved in recycling of cell surface proteins through multiple interactions with the retromer complex.
Super-resolution microscopy reveals the insulin-resistance-regulated reorganization of GLUT4 on plasma membranes
Summary: The organization of membrane-fused GLUT4 is regulated by insulin and insulin resistance, and the F5QQI motif and lipid rafts are proven to be associated with the maintenance of GLUT4 clusters.
MZT1 regulates microtubule nucleation by linking γTuRC assembly to adapter-mediated targeting and activation
Highlighted Article: In human cells, integrity of the microtubule nucleator γTuRC is crucial for γ-tubulin-dependent functions and is monitored by MZT1 to enable interaction with other factors necessary for spatial regulation of nucleation.
RhoA regulates actin network dynamics during apical surface emergence in multiciliated epithelial cells
Summary: The role of the small GTPase RhoA in the assembly of the apical surface in nascent multiciliated cells is explored, revealing that RhoA and formin 1 control forces acting on the apical surface to regulate apical emergence.
CD4 downregulation by the HIV-1 protein Nef reveals distinct roles for the γ1 and γ2 subunits of the AP-1 complex in protein trafficking
Highlighted Article: The HIV-1 accessory protein Nef interacts with a new variant of the adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1), which contains the γ2 subunit, to target CD4 molecules to lysosomes.
Vesicular PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and Rab7 are key effectors of sea urchin zygote nuclear membrane fusion
Summary: Class-I PI3-kinases are needed for pronuclear envelope formation and fusion in sea urchin zygotes, and Rab7 GTPase and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 directly interact during the membrane fusion process.
Beneficial effects of rapamycin in a Drosophila model for hereditary spastic paraplegia
Summary: We show that Drosophila lacking atl, a gene associated with hereditary spastic paraplegia, exhibit muscle degeneration and other phenotypes that are each rescued by administering the Tor inhibitor rapamycin.
Mortalin-mediated and ERK-controlled targeting of HIF-1α to mitochondria confers resistance to apoptosis under hypoxia
Summary: An unconventional anti-apoptotic function of HIF-1α during hypoxia involves ERK-regulated association of its C-terminal domain with outer mitochondrial membrane proteins.
Heterochromatin aggregation during DNA elimination in Tetrahymena is facilitated by a prion-like protein
Summary: The prion-like protein Jub6p forms SDS-resistant aggregates, binds to RNA and is a heterochromatin component important for the heterochromatin body formation during programmed DNA elimination.
Phosphorylation of filamin A regulates chemokine receptor CCR2 recycling
Summary: The chemokine receptor signal modulates the function of filamin A by phosphorylating serine 2152, as a mechanism to regulate its own loading into endosomal tubulations and receptor trafficking.
Phosphorylation of XIAP by CDK1–cyclin-B1 controls mitotic cell death
Summary: Phosphorylation of XIAP by CDK1–cyclin-B1 controls the onset of mitotic cell death, which is important for surveillance against defects in mitosis and the response to cancer drugs that target cell division.
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
A quantitative FastFUCCI assay defines cell cycle dynamics at a single-cell level
Summary: This article presents the preclinical utility of an automated in vitro imaging platform that enables quantitative single-cell spatiotemporal monitoring of the cell cycle.
Correction: Emerging roles of the single EF-hand Ca2+ sensor tescalcin in the regulation of gene expression, cell growth and differentiation
ARTICLES OF INTEREST IN OUR OTHER JOURNALS
Rewiring of embryonic glucose metabolism via suppression of PFK-1 and aldolase during mouse chorioallantoic branching
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