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CELL SCIENTISTS TO WATCH

MEETING REPORT

CELL SCIENCE AT A GLANCE

Summary: This article provides insight into new functions of WASP family proteins from regulating the biogenesis of autophagosomes to recently identified roles in the nucleus.

REVIEW

Summary: This Review discusses the mechanisms by which the nucleus, and chromatin in particular, respond to changes in the mechanical microenvironment of the cell, resulting in architectural and transcriptional alterations, and thereby facilitating cellular adaption.

RESEARCH ARTICLES

Highlighted Article: Depletion of the mammalian TRAPPIII complex member TRAPPC13 makes cells resistant to Golgi stressors, diminishes Brefeldin A (BFA)-induced autophagy flux, and reduces Rab1a activity in response to BFA.

Summary: Given that eukaryotic cells carry multiple chromosomes, multiple kinetochores could occasionally interact with a single microtubule. We identify problems associated with this situation and find mechanisms mitigating these problems.

Highlighted Article: LIPUS is a therapeutic intervention used to promote healing. We show that the mechanical signal is sensed by the FA protein vinculin to trigger intracellular signalling events, promoting cell motility.

Summary: TRPC1 Ca2+ channels mediate hypoxia-associated cellular events via hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1α)-dependent and -independent pathways in PTEN-deficient breast cancer cells.

Highlighted Article: Nup153, previously shown to be required for nuclear import of 53BP1, is also required for sumoylation of 53BP1, acting by displacing the SUMO protease SENP1, contributing to efficient DNA double-strand break repair.

Summary: Cch1p, the yeast homolog of the pore-forming subunit α1 of mammalian VGCCs, is regulated by redox-dependent glutathionylation and deglutathionylation (mediated by Gtt1p, and Grx1p and Trx2p, respectively) of cysteine residues.

Highlighted Article: Unexpectedly, β-PIX loss in keratinocytes increases the migration speed of single cells and promotes collective cell migration during wound repair by promoting actomyosin fiber contraction.

Summary: At neuromuscular synapses, secreted Timp limits extracellular proteolytic activity to restrict BMP signaling from the muscle to the motor neuron. This mechanism controls synaptic architecture, function and locomotor behavior.

Highlighted Article: Mitochondrial homeostasis is maintained by fusion and fission, and is essential for healthy cells. We identify a novel endocytic protein, EHD1, that, together with its interaction partner rabankyrin-5, indirectly regulates mitochondrial fission.

Summary: Fluorescent transgenic reporter constructs detecting caspase activity were designed and integrated in Xenopus embryos, revealing an unexpected nonapoptotic function for the initiator caspase-9 in primitive blood formation.

Summary: ARHGAP42 is activated by Src-mediated Tyr-376 phosphorylation to inhibit RhoA, and promote focal adhesion dynamics and cell motility.

Summary: Polyphosphate is present in all eukaryotes, but little is known about its function. Here, we describe how Dictyostelium uses polyphosphate as a signal to initiate development.

Summary: Clathrin-independent endocytosis occurs in T cells and, together with activities of Arf6 and Rab22, can influence the ability of T cells to form a cell–cell conjugate with antigen-presenting cells.

Summary: The oocyte nucleolus is successfully reconstituted by NPM2 protein, and serves as a key platform to organize pericentromeric heterochromatin in order to correctly segregate parental chromosomes.

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