IN THIS ISSUE
CELL SCIENCE AT A GLANCE
Summary: Ventral stress fibers play a key role in cellular mechanosensitivity. We discuss here fundamental questions regarding their structure, force-dependent assembly and force generation capacity.
Summary: HDAC6 is required for the cytolytic function of CD8 T cells in vivo and in vitro by controlling lytic granule dynamics.
Mitochondrial functions of RECQL4 are required for the prevention of aerobic glycolysis-dependent cell invasion
Highlighted Article: Localization of RECQL4 to the mitochondria is required to maintain mitochondrial functions, prevent aerobic glycolysis and cellular invasion.
Summary: By measuring tubulin kinetics at microtubule tips and by performing simulations, we reveal a new mechanism for the action of TPX2 in microtubule nucleation and stabilization.
Highlighted Article: PP1 triggers Gwl inactivation upon meiotic and mitotic exit by targeting dephosphorylation of this kinase on its Ser875 activating residue. PP1 is essential to inactivate Gwl when PP2A-B55 is inhibited.
PP1 initiates the dephosphorylation of MASTL, triggering mitotic exit and bistability in human cells
Highlighted Article: Our results show that loss of Cdk1 activity allows PP1 to partially dephosphorylate MASTL, activating PP2A, which completes the dephosphorylation and deactivation of MASTL, thereby promoting mitotic exit.
Summary: CD44s, a splice isoform of the cell surface molecule CD44, plays an essential role in invadopodia activity and, consequently, metastasis during cancer progression.
The Parkinson's-disease-associated receptor GPR37 undergoes metalloproteinase-mediated N-terminal cleavage and ectodomain shedding
Highlighted Article: The ectodomain of the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR37 is cleaved by a metalloproteinase and released from cells constitutively by shedding. Thus, plasma membrane receptors exist in a truncated form.
CAPS1 effects on intragranular pH and regulation of BDNF release from secretory granules in hippocampal neurons
Summary: Our results reveal new functions of endogenous CAPS1 in the BDNF secretory granule life cycle thereby representing a new mechanism of neuronal plasticity.
Integrins synergise to induce expression of the MRTF-A–SRF target gene ISG15 for promoting cancer cell invasion
Highlighted Article: Fibronectin-binding integrin receptors cooperate to induce MRTF-A nuclear translocation and activate the expression of the MRTF-A−SRF target gene Isg15 to promote cancer cell invasion.
Mechanistic insights into the inhibition of Sec61-dependent co- and post-translational translocation by mycolactone
Summary: The Buruli ulcer toxin mycolactone inhibits both the co- and post-translational pathways for protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum by perturbing the function of the Sec61 translocon.
Temporal control of bidirectional lipid-droplet motion in Drosophila depends on the ratio of kinesin-1 and its co-factor Halo
Highlighted Article: Lipid droplets in Drosophila embryos are an important model of bidirectional transport. Their net transport is controlled by transient expression of Halo, a rate-limiting co-factor of kinesin-1.
Summary: As well as serving as a DNA replication initiation licensing factor, Cdc6 also regulates the rDNA transcription initiation in proliferating cells.
Highlighted Article: The mammalian DCN-type NEDD8 E3 ligases (DCNL1–5) have overlapping and unique functions that might be related to their subcellular distribution and are mostly governed by their unique N-termini.
TRAF2 exerts opposing effects on basal and TNFα-induced activation of the classic IKK complex in hematopoietic cells in mice
Summary: TRAF2 and IAP1 cooperatively suppress the basal activity of canonical NF-κB signaling. They also play an essential role in TNF-induced immediate but not delayed IKK activation.
DICER, DROSHA and DNA damage response RNAs are necessary for the secondary recruitment of DNA damage response factors
Summary: We show that DICER, DROSHA and DNA damage response RNAs are necessary for the secondary recruitment of DNA damage response factors but not essential for primary recognition of DNA lesions.
The Drosophila tricellular junction protein Gliotactin regulates its own mRNA levels through BMP-mediated induction of miR-184
Summary: Gliotactin, a key tricellular junction protein, is controlled by miR-184-mediated mRNA degradation. Excess Gliotactin triggers miR-184 expression by activating the BMP type-1 receptor Thickveins.
Summary: We report that endosomal sorting complex required for transport ESCRT-II proteins are required for the maintenance of the sarcoplasmic reticulum integrity in C. elegans body wall muscle cells.
Summary: Splicing of specific introns is essential for subsequent post-transcriptional events required for in vivo expression of a neuronal cytoskeletal component that is crucial for axon development.
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
Tailored placement of a turn-forming PA tag into the structured domain of a protein to probe its conformational state
Summary: The turn-forming nature of the PA tag peptide allows its insertion into various loop locations in target proteins, including integrins, enabling conformational probing with the anti-PA antibody NZ-1.