IN THIS ISSUE
CELL SCIENTISTS TO WATCH
Summary: Nuclear pore complexes are the gatekeepers of the nuclear envelope. We summarize how these huge structures assemble from about a thousand individual proteins and integrate into the nuclear envelope.
Highlighted Article: The DNA repair nuclease Xpf helps to maintain the integrity of the genome during bacterial phagocytosis in the amoeba Dictyostelium.
Inappropriate expression of the translation elongation factor 1A disrupts genome stability and metabolism
Summary: The translation elongation factor eEF1A is elevated in some cancers. We use yeast and human cell models to show that eEF1A elevation leads to genome instability and metabolic alterations that might affect its oncogenic properties.
Highlighted Article: Identification of a new pathway downstream of the RHO subfamily of small GTPases that regulates Golgi orientation during cell migration through FAM65A, CCM3 and the MST3 and MST4 protein kinases.
High resolution microscopy reveals the nuclear shape of budding yeast during cell cycle and in various biological states
Summary: This novel method to explore 3D geometry of the nuclear envelope with enhanced resolution and post-acquisition correction of z-axis aberration revealed increased NPC density near the SPB and the nucleolus.
α-Catenin stabilises Cadherin–Catenin complexes and modulates actomyosin dynamics to allow pulsatile apical contraction
Highlighted Article: We analyse the function of α-Catenin, a key mechanosensory protein transmitting actomyosin cytoskeletal tension to the cell membrane, in promoting and stabilising apical contraction during dorsal closure in Drosophila.
Summary: Interphase prenucleolar body disassembly and nucleolus assembly might be coupled through RNA-dependent exchange of nucleolar proteins.
Perturbations in actin dynamics reconfigure protein complexes that modulate GCN2 activity and promote an eIF2 response
Highlighted Article: We have uncovered a cross-talk between the actin cytoskeleton and protein synthesis that is mediated by GCN2. Actin depolymerization affects specific protein–protein interactions that promote GCN2 function.
SIRT1 inhibits EV71 genome replication and RNA translation by interfering with the viral polymerase and 5′UTR RNA
Summary: EV71 infection is a hazard to children. This study reveals a new mechanism underlying EV71 replication and suggest that SIRT1 could be an agent for the treatment of the viral infection.
Summary: The molecular organization of the adapter proteins LAT and SLP-76 changes during T cell activation. Upon engagement of T cell receptor, they first mix randomly. Later, SLP-76 is restricted to the edges of LAT clusters.
Summary: Pharmacological activation of β-adrenergic receptor signaling reduces the deformability of breast cancer cells and increases their invasive potential; these physical changes depend on F-actin, Ca2+ and myosin II.
Summary: This study reveals, for the first time, how a histone chaperone, which is also associated with DNA repair machinery, could influence cellular transition and pluripotency and thereby regulate reprogramming.
An unconventional interaction between Dis1/TOG and Mal3/EB1 in fission yeast promotes the fidelity of chromosome segregation
Summary: We show that Dis1 and Mal3, fission yeast XMAP215/TOG and EB1 family members, directly interact in a non-canonical manner, thereby synergistically enhancing microtubule dynamics.
Summary: ANKLE2 is a new SIRT2 substrate. ANKLE2 deacetylation by SIRT2 is required for normal nuclear envelope reassembly. ANKLE2 and SIRT2 depletion yield aberrant nuclear morphology also found in Parkinson's disease, progeria and aging.
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
Summary: We describe the photochemical basis of Acridine Orange (AO) and its usefulness as a probe for autophagy quantification and find that considering the red-to-green fluorescence intensity ratio of AO gives the best correlation with other autophagy assays.
Simultaneous quantification of actin monomer and filament dynamics with modeling-assisted analysis of photoactivation
Summary: We have devised a new modeling-based analysis for photoactivatable actin experiments that accurately measures multiple parameters of actin dynamics, providing more detailed results than those obtained using traditional half-time analysis.