IN THIS ISSUE
CELL SCIENTISTS TO WATCH
Summary: HEAT repeats, repetitive arrays of amphiphilic helices found in many eukaryotic proteins, flexibly change their own conformations and support dynamic protein–protein interactions in crowded environments in the cell.
Summary: Recent advances in understanding the bidirectional trafficking pathway between the Golgi and the endosomes are discussed, including how they have helped to exemplify and put together long-debated models of transport.
Summary: Direct physical and functional calsequestrin 2 association with the ryanodine receptor luminal domain is the minimal requirement to form the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ sensor, which governs cardiac Ca2+ homeostasis and reliable heartbeat.
Transient fusion ensures granule replenishment to enable repeated release after IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation
Highlighted Article: Kiss-and-run and cavicapture are the dominant mechanisms associated with granule replenishment in mast cells after IgE-mediated degranulation.
Summary: We identify a Hedgehog-pathway-associated ubiquitin ligase adapter as a direct interaction partner of the deubiquitylase USP21 and discover a close interplay between USP21 and protein kinase A in regulating Gli1.
Highlighted Article: Meiotic chromosomes are segregated asymmetrically in anaphase, and the phragmoplast dynamically adjusts its location to correct for metaphase spindle misplacement within the cell volume.
Summary: We show that the RNA-binding protein HuR plays a key role in controlling expression of multiple components of the nuclear import machinery, presenting a new mechanism by which nuclear import of proteins is regulated.
Acsl, the Drosophila ortholog of intellectual-disability-related ACSL4, inhibits synaptic growth by altered lipids
Highlighted Article: Acsl, the Drosophila ortholog of the long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (ACSL4), inhibits synaptic growth by upregulating C16:1 fatty acyls and downregulating the abundance of raft-associated lipids.
Summary: The Rho GTPase Rnd3 is known to alter cell shape and the actin cytoskeleton. Here, the semaphorin receptor plexin-B2 is identified as a new Rnd3 partner that mediates its effects on cell shape.
Highlighted Article: Oleate-inducible targeting of malate synthases into yeast peroxisomes is facilitated by the newly identified PTS1 receptor Pex9p, which exhibits a strong selectivity for these isoenzymes.
Characterization of proteome dynamics during growth in oleate reveals a new peroxisome-targeting receptor
Highlighted Article: A high-content screen uncovered many changes in protein localization in yeast grown in oleate and highlighted a new condition-specific peroxisomal protein, Pex9, which targets a subset of proteins to peroxisomes.
Summary: Analysis of ChIP-seq data revealed a cohort of dual MEF2 and AP-1 target genes involved in cytoskeletal organization. Regulation of Hspb7 by MEF2 and AP-1 was further characterized in models of muscle atrophy.
VEGF induces signalling and angiogenesis by directing VEGFR2 internalisation through macropinocytosis
Highlighted Article: VEGFR2 internalises constitutively through clathrin-mediated endocytosis, whereas VEGF induces a new internalisation itinerary for VEGFR2 through macropinocytosis, which is essential for its signalling.
Summary: Translation affects adhesion and invasion potential of spreading initiation centers (SICs) producing mesenchymal cells, but not epithelial cells, which are deprived of SICs
New links between SOD1 and metabolic dysfunction from a yeast model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Summary: In a new yeast model of ALS we have discovered for the first time that mutations in Sod1 can lead to the formation of toxic, soluble proteins that disrupt metabolic regulation.
Summary: The cancer-promoting phosphatase PRL-3 triggers ectopic lumen formation through midbody mispositioning by accelerating cytokinesis, suggesting a new oncogenic mechanism.
Summary: Nuclear localization of the glucocorticoid receptor that is dependent on the time of day is altered at the post-translational level by the absence of REV-ERBα, affecting expression GR target genes.