Cover: DUX4 underlies pathogenesis in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Differentiating murine muscle satellite cells were transduced to express a truncated version of DUX4 (green). Co-immunostaining for myosin heavy chain (red) showed that truncated DUX4 suppresses fusion of satellite cells into multinucleated myotubes. Blue, nuclei. See article by P. Knopp et al. (pp. 3816–3831).
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IN THIS ISSUE
Autophagy in adhesion and migration
Summary: Discussion of emerging roles for selective autophagy in adhesion and migration through regulation of focal adhesion turnover, cellular tension and integrin trafficking.
The changing view of eukaryogenesis – fossils, cells, lineages and how they all come together
Summary: Eukaryogenesis, the emergence of eukaryotic cells, represents a pivotal evolutionary event. Advances in paleogeology, phylogenetics, cell biology and microbial diversity provide new insights into aspects of eukaryogenesis.
Desmin and αB-crystallin interplay in the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis and cardiomyocyte survival
Highlighted Article: Both desmin and its partner chaperone αB-crystallin associate with mitochondria–sarcoplasmic-reticulum contact sites (MAMs), stabilizing MICOS super-complexes, and thus contributing to proper mitochondrial cristae structure–function.
C. elegans midbodies are released, phagocytosed and undergo LC3-dependent degradation independent of macroautophagy
Summary: Autophagy proteins are required for the degradation of midbodies. In C. elegans, Atg8/LC3-family proteins act during phagosome maturation rather than during macroautophagy.
Drosophila sensory cilia lacking MKS proteins exhibit striking defects in development but only subtle defects in adults
Highlighted Article: An analysis of Meckel–Gruber syndrome (MKS) fly mutants reveals that cilium structure is perturbed during development, but that cilia are largely structurally and functionally normal by adulthood.
Triadin and CLIMP-63 form a link between triads and microtubules in muscle cells
Summary: CLIMP-63 is associated with the Ca2+ release complex of skeletal muscles through its interaction with triadin, and is involved in the shaping of triads and in the guidance of microtubules.
Direct interaction between exocyst and Wave complexes promotes cell protrusions and motility
Highlighted Article: A direct link between exocyst and Wave complexes is revealed, providing new mechanistic insight into the spatio-temporal coordination between membrane trafficking and actin polymerization.
Cdc48 and Ubx1 participate in a pathway associated with the inner nuclear membrane that governs Asi1 degradation
Summary: The inner nuclear membrane (INM) E3 ubiquitin ligase component Asi1 is ubiquitylated, removed from the membrane and targeted to nuclear proteasomes through a new INM-associated degradation pathway.
Atg9A trafficking through the recycling endosomes is required for autophagosome formation
Highlighted Article: Atg9A trafficking through the recycling endosome is required for autophagy, and is mediated by TRAPPIII and intrinstic Atg9A-sorting motifs that bind to AP2.
Prolyl endopeptidase is involved in the degradation of neural cell adhesion molecules in vitro
Summary: NCAM and its polysialylated form (PSA-NCAM) are important regulators of brain plasticity. We demonstrate that prolyl endopeptidase (PREP) is involved in the regulation of NCAM and PSA-NCAM.
Mature lipid droplets are accessible to ER luminal proteins
Highlighted Article: Lipid droplets are accessible to ER luminal proteins, suggesting that lipid droplets form a specialized domain within the ER membrane that can be recognized from both the cytosolic and the luminal side.
DUX4 induces a transcriptome more characteristic of a less-differentiated cell state and inhibits myogenesis
Summary: DUX4 underlies pathogenesis in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. DUX4 acts mainly as a transcriptional activator that inhibits myogenesis by orchestrating a gene expression profile representative of a more stem-cell-like state.
Sortilin regulates sorting and secretion of Sonic hedgehog
Highlighted Article: We report a new role for sortilin (Sort1) as a negative regulator of Sonic hedgehog trafficking to axons and secretion from cells.
The role of ADP-ribosylation in regulating DNA interstrand crosslink repair
Summary: Here, we identify a role for post-translational modification ADP-ribosylation in the response to DNA interstrand crosslinks in the model Dictyostelium.
Endo-lysosomal TRP mucolipin-1 channels trigger global ER Ca2+ release and Ca2+ influx
Summary: The endolysosomal ion channel TRP mucolipin 1 was thought to mediate local Ca2+ signals. However, as reported here, it can also mediate global elevations in Ca2+.
Inhibition of cargo export at ER exit sites and the trans-Golgi network by the secretion inhibitor FLI-06
Summary: The secretion inhibitor FLI-06 inhibits recruitment of cargo into ERES by a mechanism upstream of Sar1 and COPII, and also blocks exit from the trans-Golgi network.
Characterization of prion protein function by focal neurite stimulation
Summary: By using a novel approach to stimulate and guide the growth cones of hippocampal neurons with high spatial and temporal resolution, we reveal a function for the soluble form of PrP to promote fast neurite outgrowth.
Essential role of the Dishevelled DEP domain in a Wnt-dependent human-cell-based complementation assay
Summary: A physiological complementation assay in Dishevelled null-mutant human cells establishes an essential function of the DEP domain of Dishevelled in its binding to Frizzled for signal transduction to β-catenin.
Mutant IP3 receptors attenuate store-operated Ca2+ entry by destabilizing STIM–Orai interactions in Drosophila neurons
Summary: In Drosophila neurons, mutant IP3 receptors disrupt store-operated Ca2+ entry by destabilizing interaction of STIM with the Ca2+ channel, Orai. The interactions could coordinate store emptying with Ca2+ entry.
Neuropilin-1 modulates interferon-γ-stimulated signaling in brain microvascular endothelial cells
Summary: This is the first study to define the role of neuropilin-1, a co-receptor of several structurally distinct cytokines, in the IFNγ-induced inflammatory response of endothelial cells in neuroinflammatory diseases.
A ternary complex comprising transportin1, Rab8 and the ciliary targeting signal directs proteins to ciliary membranes
Summary: Transportin1 and Rab8 can simultaneously bind to the ciliary targeting signal in a guanine-nucleotide-dependent manner. The resulting ternary complex can target a membrane protein to cilia.
Plant mitochondria contain the protein translocase subunits TatB and TatC
Summary: This paper provides evidence that Arabidopsis thaliana mitochondria contain two subunits of a twin arginine translocation (Tat) pathway, indicating the presence of an active Tat pathway in plants.
Exosomes bind to autotaxin and act as a physiological delivery mechanism to stimulate LPA receptor signalling in cells
Summary: Autotaxin, a secreted enzyme that generates lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), binds to exosomes and is thereby targeted to cells in order to deliver LPA and activate cell surface receptors.
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