IN THIS ISSUE
CELL SCIENCE AT A GLANCE
Summary: MicroCT is a technology that can rapidly image the internal 3D structure of macroscopic biological specimens (including living systems) at sub-micron resolutions. This Commentary discusses four case studies to illustrate its capabilities.
Meiotic onset is reliant on spatial distribution but independent of germ cell number in the mouse ovary
Summary: Germ cell numbers do not affect the wave of meiotic entry in female mice. Migration mutants support a diffusion model of meiotic entry and connect aberrant germ cell migration to defects in meiosis.
Highlighted Article: Human CEP295 interacts with microtubules and is essential for building the distal half centrioles and post-translational modification of centriolar microtubules.
Highlighted Article: Ana1 is a conserved centriole protein that we show is required for centrosome and cilium assembly and that also helps to promote centriole elongation in a dose-dependent manner.
Summary: The immune synapse forms at the interface between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell. It is preceded by a pre-synapse at the opposite pole whose formation is independent of antigen recognition.
From meiosis to mitosis – the sperm centrosome defines the kinetics of spindle assembly after fertilization in Xenopus
Highlighted Article: During the first embryonic division, the duplicated sperm centrosomes define the kinetics of spindle bipolarization, ensuring their own inheritance to the daughter cells.
The Ca2+-activated Cl− channel Ano1 controls microvilli length and membrane surface area in the oocyte
Summary: The chloride channel Ano1 regulates cell surface area in Xenopus oocytes by modulating the length of cellular extensions known as microvilli through interaction with ERM proteins and the cytoskeleton.
Cdk-dependent phosphorylation regulates TRF1 recruitment to PML bodies and promotes C-circle production in ALT cells
Highlighted Article: How TRF1 regulates alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is poorly understood. Here, we report that Cdk activity in S and G2 phases controls TRF1 interaction with PML bodies to promote ALT features.
DeepCAGE transcriptomics identify HOXD10 as a transcription factor regulating lymphatic endothelial responses to VEGF-C
Summary: The transcription factor HOXD10 regulates induction of immediate early transcription factors in lymphatic endothelial cells stimulated with the growth factor VEGF-C, and regulates lymphatic endothelial permeability.
Highlighted Article: In microvascular endothelial cells, basement membrane proteins are key determinants of podosome induction and function in response to the canonical angiogenic factor VEGF-A.
Summary: Activation of the cAMP sensor EPAC1 leads to stabilization of CFTR at the plasma membrane, through a mechanism that involves the PDZ adaptor NHERF1, and could be used to increase the rescue of mutant CFTR.
Highlighted Article: A role for the TOR signalling pathway in regulating cytokinesis is identified. This myosin-dependent mechanism modulates the stability of the S. pombe CapZ complex to regulate actin function.
Summary: Fast endocytic recycling is essential for normal cell physiology; however, the mechanisms regulating this process remain ill-defined. Here, we identify NECAP2 as a new organizer of the fast recycling pathway.
Aggregation dynamics and identification of aggregation-prone mutants of the von Hippel–Lindau tumor suppressor protein
Highlighted Article: If misfolded, the von Hippel–Lindau (pVHL) tumor suppressor protein is prone to aggregate and to be degraded. Tumorigenic mutations might compromise its folding. We identify new factors regulating pVHL folding.
Shot and Patronin polarise microtubules to direct membrane traffic and biogenesis of microvilli in epithelia
Summary: In Drosophila, microtubules are polarised along the apical-basal axis of epithelial cells by the concerted action of Shot and Patronin, two apically localised microtubule binding proteins.
Kinectin-dependent ER transport supports the focal complex maturation required for chemotaxis in shallow gradients
Summary: Kinectin-mediated ER transport stabilizes the correctly oriented leading membrane protrusions to allow biased random migration during chemotaxis in shallow chemoattractant gradients by promoting maturation of focal complexes.
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
Chromatibody, a novel non-invasive molecular tool to explore and manipulate chromatin in living cells
Summary: Chromatibody is a chromatin-binding single-domain antibody, derived from llama nanobodies, that can be used as a novel non-invasive molecular tool to explore and manipulate chromatin in living cells.