IN THIS ISSUE
CELL SCIENTISTS TO WATCH
Reliability of ROS and RNS detection in hematopoietic stem cells − potential issues with probes and target cell population
Summary: In this Opinion article we discuss the reliability of ROS and RNS detection in HSCs, and propose approaches to examine the levels of ROS and RNS specifically in HSCs in vitro and in vivo.
Summary: The limits of the cellular resilience to protein misfolding are outlined, and the possibility of pushing these limits to help cells survive and to avoid protein quality control catastrophes is discussed.
Summary: In endothelial cells, the membrane-bound LPA-degrading enzyme LPP3 is specifically expressed at cell–cell contact sites, thereby localizing the signal evoked by extracellularly produced LPA.
Galactosylsphingosine (psychosine)-induced demyelination is attenuated by sphingosine 1-phosphate signalling
Highlighted Article: We provide data suggesting that sphingosine 1-phosphate signalling could be a potential drug target for Krabbe disease and perhaps other demyelinating illnesses, in addition to multiple sclerosis.
Summary: Fluorescent labeling of Cx36-HaloTag revealed that turnover occurs on a different time scale than phosphorylation-driven plasticity. Cx36-HaloTag is also partially mobile within gap junctions.
Highlighted Article: By activating ERK1/2, the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 tunes the extent of the epithelial–mesenchymal transition observed in carcinoma cells in response to different growth factors.
Yeast GSK-3 kinase regulates astral microtubule function through phosphorylation of the microtubule-stabilizing kinesin Kip2
Summary: The yeast GSK-3 kinase controls astral microtubule functions by regulating the interaction of the microtubule-stabilising kinesin Kip2 with microtubules and its processivity factor Bim1/EB1.
The ARF2–ANT–COR15A gene cascade regulates ABA-signaling-mediated resistance of large seeds to drought in Arabidopsis
Highlighted Article: This work reveals, at a molecular level, that seedlings of large-seeded plants can withstand drought stresses efficiently because of ABA signaling mediating a ARF2–ANT–COR15A gene cascade.
Rac1 augments Wnt signaling by stimulating β-catenin–lymphoid enhancer factor-1 complex assembly independent of β-catenin nuclear import
Summary: Evidence is presented for a novel role of Rac1 in stimulating β-catenin–LEF-1 complex formation.
Highlighted Article: The gap junction protein Cx30 was found to be an unusually stable, long-lived connexin, which might underlie its specific role in the epidermis and cochlea.
Summary: The HER2 oncogene alters the epithelial morphogenetic program and inhibits MEF2 transcriptional programs. Reactivation of MEF2s re-established normal acini morphogenesis.
Eukaryotic initiation factor 6 modulates myofibroblast differentiation at transforming growth factor-β1 transcription level via H2A.Z occupancy and Sp1 recruitment
Highlighted Article: Eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (eIF6) acts to facilitate Sp1 recruitment to the TGF-β1 promoter through H2A.Z depletion and thus results in increased TGF-β1 transcription, which contributes to myofibroblast differentiation.
Altered N-glycosylation modulates TgrB1- and TgrC1-mediated development but not allorecognition in Dictyostelium
Summary: In Dictyostelium, compromised N-glycosylation, but not ER stress, caused by tunicamycin treatment or alg9 mutation, partially suppresses the developmental arrest in tgrB1-tgrC1-defective mutants.
Focal-adhesion-independent integrin-αv regulation of FAK and c-Myc is necessary for 3D skin formation and tumor invasion
Summary: Integrin-αv plays a crucial role in regulating skin tissue generation and tumor invasion through a focal-adhesion-independent FAK–p38–p90RSK–c-Myc signaling axis.
Uncoupling PIP2-calmodulin regulation of Kv7.2 channels by an assembly destabilizing epileptogenic mutation
Summary: Conformational changes in the helix D coiled-coil of the Kv7.2 channel affect interactions with calmodulin, which binds to helices AB, modulating channel gating and PIP2 sensitivity.