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CELL SCIENTISTS TO WATCH
CELL SCIENCE AT A GLANCE
Summary: GPCR signaling is required for cells to receive input from the outside world and from neighboring cells. This Commentary reviews known GPCR families and highlights recently discovered roles for GPCRs in Drosophila embryonic development.
PDGFRβ and oncogenic mutant PDGFRα D842V promote disassembly of primary cilia through a PLCγ- and AURKA-dependent mechanism
Summary: Growth-factor-dependent primary cilia disassembly occurs at the G0–G1 transition. PDGFR-mediated PLCγ signaling induces deciliation by activating intracellular Ca2+ release and, thereby, AURKA.
Summary: The formation of IMPDH cytoophidia reflects upregulation of purine nucleotide synthesis, suggesting that the IMPDH cytoophidium plays a distinct role from that of the CTPS cytoophidium in controlling nucleotide homeostasis.
Highlighted Article: RhoC maintains vascular homeostasis in endothelial cells yet is dispensable for vascular development. Inhibition of RhoC represents an attractive therapeutic approach to prevent cancer metastasis.
Genetic evidence for a microtubule-capture mechanism during polarised growth of Aspergillus nidulans
Summary: Microtubule plus ends are guided in the tip of growing fungal hyphae along actin cables and converge in one point.
Highlighted Article: Tetraspanin-3 is an organizer of the multi-subunit Nogo-A signaling complex. It acts in a protein complex with Nogo-A-Δ20 and S1PR2, and is required during Nogo-A-Δ20-mediated cell spreading and inhibition of neurite outgrowth.
Low levels of endogenous or X-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks activate apoptosis in adult neural stem cells
Summary: This study shows that endogenous and radiation-induced DNA damage sensitively activates apoptosis in the adult sub-ventricular zone (SVZ). Developmentally regulated apoptosis is shown in the neonatal SVZ.
Highlighted Article: By using DARPin technology, we inhibit lamin A assembly in vitro and integration of lamin A/C into the native lamina to identify lamina-dependent and -independent functions for A-type lamins.
Summary: FoxO1 is a key negative regulatory factor in the insulin-dependent control of ENaC expression, and FoxO1 phosphorylation promotes ENaC membrane trafficking by binding to 14-3-3ε in epithelium.
Highlighted Article: We identify a mechanism of myogenesis in which MyoD and miR-206 downregulate the expression of Twist-1. This pathway might also play an important role in muscle disease.
Summary: Yeast PMP3 has strong genetic interactions with the sphingolipid synthesis pathway. Pmp3p controls the plasma membrane composition and may act as a phosphoinositide-regulated stress sensor.
Polycomb RING1A- and RING1B-dependent histone H2A monoubiquitylation at pericentromeric regions promotes S-phase progression
Highlighted Article: The polycomb E3 ligases RING1A and RING1B monoubiquitylate histone H2A in pericentromeric DNA to promote replication, and hence histone H2A has a function beyond transcription.
Summary: During cytokinesis in fission yeast the tension of the actomyosin contractile ring regulates septum closure by suppressing roughness of the septum edge, while septum growth sets the constriction rate.