Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are high-conductance channels that allow the regulated redistribution of Ca2+ from the ER to the cytosol and, at specialised membrane contact sites (MCS), to other organelles. Only a subset of IP3Rs release Ca2+ to the cytosol in response to IP3. These ‘licensed’ IP3Rs are associated with Kras-induced actin-interacting protein (KRAP) beneath the plasma membrane. It is unclear whether KRAP regulates IP3Rs at MCS. We show, using simultaneous measurements of Ca2+ concentration in the cytosol and mitochondrial matrix, that KRAP also licenses IP3Rs to release Ca2+ to mitochondria. Loss of KRAP abolishes cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca2+ signals evoked by stimulation of IP3Rs via endogenous receptors. KRAP is located at ER-mitochondria membrane contact sites (ERMCS) populated by IP3R clusters. Using a proximity ligation assay between IP3R and voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), we show that loss of KRAP reduces the number of ERMCS. We conclude that KRAP regulates Ca2+ transfer from IP3Rs to mitochondria by both licensing IP3R activity and stabilizing ERMCS.

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