Degradation of aggregates by selective autophagy is important as damaged proteins may impose a threat to cellular homeostasis. Although the core components of the autophagy machinery are well-characterized, the spatiotemporal regulation of many selective autophagy processes, including aggrephagy, remains largely unexplored. Furthermore, because most live-cell imaging studies have so far focused on starvation-induced autophagy, little is known about the dynamics of aggrephagy. Here, we describe the development and application of the mKeima-PIM assay, which enables live-cell observation of autophagic turnover and degradation of inducible protein aggregates in conjunction with key autophagy players. This allowed us to quantify the relative timing and duration of different steps of aggrephagy and revealed the short-lived nature of the autophagosome. The assay furthermore showed the spatial distribution of omegasome formation, highlighting that autophagy initiation is directly instructed by the cargo. Moreover, we found that nascent autophagosomes mostly remain immobile until acidification occurs. Thus, our assay provides new insights into the spatiotemporal regulation and dynamics of aggrephagy.

This content is only available via PDF.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided that the original work is properly attributed.

Article PDF first page preview

Article PDF first page preview