Permeabilized, MgATP-reactivated cells of Paramecium (models) respond to cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP by increasing forward swimming speed. In association with the motile response, cyclic AMP and 8-bromo-cyclic GMP (8-Br-cyclic GMP) stimulated protein phosphorylation. Cyclic AMP addition to permeabilized cells reproducibly stimulated the phosphorylation of 10 proteins, ranging in molecular weight from 15 to 110K (K = 10(3) Mr). 8-Br-cyclic GMP, which selectively activates the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase of Paramecium, stimulated the phosphorylation of a subset of the proteins phosphorylated by cyclic AMP. Ca2+ addition caused backward swimming and stimulated the phosphorylation of four substrates, including a 25K target that may also be phosphorylated in response to cyclic nucleotide addition. Ba2+ and Sr2+ also induced backward swimming, but did not cause detectable phosphorylation. To identify ciliary targets of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinase activity, permeabilized cells were deciliated following reactivation of motility with Mg-[gamma-32P]ATP in the presence or absence of cyclic nucleotide. Soluble proteins of the deciliation supernatant were enriched in 15 cyclic AMP-stimulated phosphoproteins, ranging in molecular weight from 15 to 95K. Most of the ciliary substrates were axonemal and could be released by high salt solution. A 29K protein that copurified in sucrose gradients with the 22S dynein, and a high molecular weight protein (greater than 300K) in the 19 S region were phosphorylated when cyclic AMP was added to permeabilized, motile cells. These data suggest that regulation of ciliary motility by cyclic AMP may include phosphorylation of dynein-associated proteins.

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