Actinomycin D inhibits RNA synthesis on the lateral loops of newt lampbrush chromsomes. Partial inhibition does not provoke marked morphological alteration of ordinary lateral loops, most of which recover to the full their capacity for RNA synthesis within 2 days of treatment. However, occasional ordinary loops do not recover completely within the first few days after treatment, and in such loops RNA-synthesizing capacity is restricted to a region adjoining the thinner insertion in the parent chromomere. A greater degree of inhibition of RNA synthesis is accompanied by loss of matrix from ordinary lateral loops, and in the extreme case the loop axes retract to their parent chromomeres and neighbouring chromomeres coalesce; for the ordinary loops, full recovery from this stripped condition is nevertheless possible. Some 20 µ per loop extends during the first day following exposure to actinomycin, and normal morphology and RNA-synthesizing capacity are regained within 2-4 days. The giant granular loop of Triturus cristatus cristatus chromosome XII responds to extreme actinomycin D poisoning in different fashion. Matrix does not at once slough off its loop axis, but the loop present at the time of treatment is progressively replaced by a new granular loop which develops between the parent chromomere and the original loop's dense tip. These observations support the theory that the DNA-containing axes of all lateral loops of lampbrush chromosomes continually extend from their parent chromomeres, engage in RNA synthesis while extended, and carry the associated RNP matrix along as they move towards the return insertions in the parent chromomeres, where loop axis retraction occurs.

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