After vacuolar perfusion of Chara internode cells, the cytoplasm remaining in situ can be reactivated by ATP to give full rates of streaming. Observations during both perfusion and reactivation indicated that the generation of the motive force was associated with fibres consisting of bundles of microfilaments. In the absence of ATP, the remaining endoplasmic organelles were immobilized along such fibres. When ATP was introduced, organelles moved along the fibres at speeds up to 50 mum S minus 1, but but were progressively released from contact to leave the fibres in a conspicuously clean state. Inorganic pyrophosphate freed the organelles from the fibres without supporting movements. Motility required millimolar Mg2nlevels, free Ca2nat 10 minus 7 M or less and was inhibited by high levels of Clminus and by pH's on either side of 7.0. The reactivated movements were rapidly and completely inhibited by 25mug ml minus 1 cytochalasin B. The results are interpreted in terms of actin filaments in the stationary cortex interacting with a myosin-like protein which is able to link to endoplasmic organelles. Movement results from an active shear type of mechanism.

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