The process of engulfing a foreign particle - phagocytosis - is of fundamental importance for a wide diversity of organisms. From simple unicellular organisms that use phagocytosis to obtain their next meal, to complex metazoans in which phagocytic cells represent an essential branch of the immune system, evolution has armed cells with a fantastic repertoire of molecules that serve to bring about this complex event. Regardless of the organism or specific molecules concerned, however, all phagocytic processes are driven by a finely controlled rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. A variety of signals can converge to locally reorganise the actin cytoskeleton at a phagosome, and there are significant similarities and differences between different organisms and between different engulfment processes within the same organism. Recent advances have demonstrated the complexity of phagocytic signalling, such as the involvement of phosphoinostide lipids and multicomponent signalling complexes in transducing signals from phagocytic receptors to the cytoskeleton. Similarly, a wide diversity of ‘effector molecules’ are now implicated in actin-remodelling downstream of these receptors.

REFERENCES

Adamczewski
M.
,
Numerof
R. P.
,
Koretzky
G. A.
,
Kinet
J. P.
(
1995
).
Regulation by CD45 of the tyrosine phosphorylation of high affinity IgE receptor beta-and gamma-chains.
J. Immunol
154
,
3047
3055
Aderem
A.
,
Underhill
D. M.
(
1999
).
Mechanisms of phagocytosis in macrophages.
Annu. Rev. Immunol
17
,
593
623
Agarwal
A.
,
Salem
P.
,
Robbins
K. C.
(
1993
).
Involvement of p72syk, a protein-tyrosine kinase, in Fc gamma receptor signaling.
J. Biol. Chem
268
,
15900
15905
Aizawa
H.
,
Fukui
Y.
,
Yahara
I.
(
1997
).
Live dynamics of Dictyostelium cofilin suggests a role in remodeling actin latticework into bundles.
J. Cell Sci
110
,
2333
2344
Algrain
M.
,
Turunen
O.
,
Vaheri
A.
,
Louvard
D.
,
Arpin
M.
(
1993
).
Ezrin contains cytoskeleton and membrane binding domains accounting for its proposed role as a membrane-cytoskeletal linker.
J. Cell Biol
120
,
129
139
Allen
L. H.
,
Aderem
A.
(
1995
).
A role for MARCKS, the alpha isozyme of protein kinase C and myosin I in zymosan phagocytosis by macrophages.
J. Exp. Med
182
,
829
840
Allen
L. A.
,
Aderem
A.
(
1996
).
Mechanisms of phagocytosis.
Curr. Opin. Immunol
8
,
36
40
Allen
L. A.
,
Aderem
A.
(
1996
).
Molecular definition of distinct cytoskeletal structures involved in complement-and Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis in macrophages.
J. Exp. Med
184
,
627
637
Araki
N.
,
Johnson
M. T.
,
Swanson
J. A.
(
1996
).
A role for phosphoinositide 3-kinase in the completion of macropinocytosis and phagocytosis by macrophages.
J. Cell Biol
135
,
1249
1260
Araki
N.
,
Hatae
T.
,
Yamada
T.
,
Hirohashi
S.
(
2000
).
Actinin-4 is preferentially involved in circular ruffling and macropinocytosis in mouse macrophages: analysis by fluorescence ratio imaging.
J. Cell Sci
113
,
3329
3340
Aspenstrom
P.
,
Lindberg
U.
,
Hall
A.
(
1996
).
Two GTPases, Cdc42 and Rac, bind directly to a protein implicated in the immunodeficiency disorder Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.
Curr. Biol
6
,
70
75
Aspenstrom
P.
(
1999
).
Effectors for the Rho GTPases.
Curr. Opin. Cell Biol
11
,
95
102
Aspenstrom
P.
(
1999
).
The Rho GTPases have multiple effects on the actin cytoskeleton.
Exp. Cell Res
246
,
20
25
Azzoni
L.
,
Kamoun
M.
,
Salcedo
T. W.
,
Kanakaraj
P.
,
Perussia
B.
(
1992
).
Stimulation of Fc gamma RIIIA results in phospholipase C-gamma 1 tyrosine phosphorylation and p56lck activation.
J. Exp. Med
176
,
1745
1750
Bailly
P.
,
Tontti
E.
,
Hermand
P.
,
Cartron
J. P.
,
Gahmberg
C. G.
(
1995
).
The red cell LW blood group protein is an intercellular adhesion molecule which binds to CD11/CD18 leukocyte integrins.
Eur. J. Immunol
25
,
3316
3320
Bajno
L.
,
Peng
X. R.
,
Schreiber
A. D.
,
Moore
H. P.
,
Trimble
W. S.
,
Grinstein
S.
(
2000
).
Focal exocytosis of VAMP3-containing vesicles at sites of phagosome formation.
J. Cell Biol
149
,
697
706
Bengtsson
T.
,
Jaconi
M. E.
,
Gustafson
M.
,
Magnusson
K. E.
,
Theler
J.M.
,
Lew
D. P.
,
Stendahl
O.
(
1993
).
Actin dynamics in human neutrophils during adhesion and phagocytosis is controlled by changes in intracellular free calcium.
Eur. J. Cell Biol
62
,
49
58
Blystone
S. D.
,
Graham
I. L.
,
Lindberg
F. P.
,
Brown
E. J.
(
1994
).
Integrin alpha v beta 3 differentially regulates adhesive and phagocytic functions of the fibronectin receptor alpha 5 beta 1.
J. Cell Biol
127
,
1129
1137
Botelho
R. J.
,
Teruel
M.
,
Dierckman
R.
,
Anderson
R.
,
Wells
A.
,
York
J. D.
,
Meyer
T.
,
Grinstein
S.
(
2000
).
Localized biphasic changes in phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate at sites of phagocytosis.
J. Cell Biol
151
,
1353
1368
Brown
E. J.
(
1986
).
The role of extracellular matrix proteins in the control of phagocytosis.
J. Leuk. Biol
39
,
579
591
Brown
E. J.
(
1991
).
Complement receptors and phagocytosis.
Curr. Opin. Immunol
3
,
76
82
Brumell
J. H.
,
Howard
J. C.
,
Craig
K.
,
Grinstein
S.
,
Schreiber
A. D.
,
Tyers
M.
(
1999
).
Expression of the protein kinase C substrate pleckstrin in macrophages: association with phagosomal membranes.
J. Immunol
163
,
3388
3395
Buyon
J. P.
,
Slade
S. G.
,
Reibman
J.
,
Abramson
S. B.
,
Philips
M. R.
,
Weissmann
G.
,
Winchester
R.
(
1990
).
Constitutive and induced phosphorylation of the alpha-and beta-chains of the CD11/CD18 leukocyte integrin family. Relationship to adhesion-dependent functions.
J. Immunol
144
,
191
197
Carballo
E.
,
Pitterle
D. M.
,
Stumpo
D. J.
,
Sperling
R. T.
,
Blackshear
P. J.
(
1999
).
Phagocytic and macropinocytic activity in MARCKS-deficient macrophages and fibroblasts.
Am. J. Physiol
277
,
163
173
Carlier
M. F.
,
Nioche
P.
,
Broutin-L'Hermite
I.
,
Boujemaa
R.
,
Le Clainche
C.
,
Egile
C.
,
Garbay
C.
,
Ducruix
A.
,
Sansonetti
P.
,
Pantaloni
D.
(
2000
).
GRB2 links signaling to actin assembly by enhancing interaction of neural wiskott-aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASp) with actin-related protein (ARP2/3) complex.
J. Biol. Chem
275
,
21946
21952
Caron
E.
,
Hall
A.
(
1998
).
Identification of two distinct mechanisms of phagocytosis controlled by different Rho GTPases.
Science
282
,
1717
1721
Caron
E.
,
Self
A. J.
,
Hall
A.
(
2000
).
The GTPase Rap1 controls functional activation of macrophage integrin alphaMbeta2 by LPS and other inflammatory mediators.
Curr. Biol
10
,
974
978
Castellano
F.
,
Montcourrier
P.
,
Guillemot
J. C.
,
Gouin
E.
,
Machesky
L.
,
Cossart
P.
,
Chavrier
P.
(
1999
).
Inducible recruitment of Cdc42 or WASP to a cell-surface receptor triggers actin polymerization and filopodium formation.
Curr. Biol
9
,
351
360
Castellano
F.
,
Montcourrier
P.
,
Chavrier
P.
(
2000
).
Membrane recruitment of Rac1 triggers phagocytosis.
J. Cell Sci
113
,
2955
2961
Chacko
G. W.
,
Brandt
J. T.
,
Coggeshall
K. M.
,
Anderson
C. L.
(
1996
).
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase and p72syk noncovalently associate with the low affinity Fc gamma receptor on human platelets through an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif. Reconstitution with synthetic phosphopeptides.
J. Biol. Chem
271
,
10775
10781
Chan
A. C.
,
Iwashima
M.
,
Turck
C. W.
,
Weiss
A.
(
1992
).
ZAP-70: a 70 kd protein-tyrosine kinase that associates with the TCR zeta chain.
Cell
71
,
649
662
Chatila
T. A.
,
Geha
R. S.
,
Arnaout
M. A.
(
1989
).
Constitutive and stimulus-induced phosphorylation of CD11/CD18 leukocyte adhesion molecules.
J. Cell Biol
109
,
3435
3444
Chavrier
P.
,
Goud
B.
(
1999
).
The role of ARF and Rab GTPases in membrane transport.
Curr. Opin. Cell Biol
11
,
466
475
Chuang
F. Y.
,
Sassaroli
M.
,
Unkeless
J. C.
(
2000
).
Convergence of Fc gamma receptor IIA and Fc gamma receptor IIIB signaling pathways in human neutrophils.
J. Immunol
164
,
350
360
Chubb
J. R.
,
Wilkins
A.
,
Thomas
G. M.
,
Insall
R. H.
(
2000
).
The Dictyostelium RasS protein is required for macropinocytosis, phagocytosis and the control of cell movement.
J. Cell Sci
113
,
709
719
Cornillon
S.
,
Pech
E.
,
Benghezal
M.
,
Ravanel
K.
,
Gaynor
E.
,
Letourneur
F.
,
Bruckert
F.
,
Cosson
P.
(
2000
).
Phg1p: a nine-transmembrane protein superfamily member involved in Dictyostelium adhesion and phagocytosis.
J. Biol. Chem
275
,
34287
34292
Cox
D.
,
Chang
P.
,
Kurosaki
T.
,
Greenberg
S.
(
1996
).
Syk tyrosinekinase is required for immunoreceptor tyrosine activation motif-dependent actin assembly.
J. Biol. Chem
271
,
16597
16602
Cox
D.
,
Wessels
D.
,
Soll
D. R.
,
Hartwig
J.
,
Condeelis
J.
(
1996
).
Re-expression of ABP-120 rescues cytoskeletal, motility, and phagocytosis defects of ABP-120-Dictyostelium mutants.
Mol. Biol. Cell
7
,
803
823
Cox
D.
,
Chang
P.
,
Zhang
Q.
,
Reddy
P. G.
,
Bokoch
G. M.
,
Greenberg
S.
(
1997
).
Requirements for both Rac1 and Cdc42 in membrane ruffling and phagocytosis in leukocytes.
J. Exp. Med
186
,
1487
1494
Cox
D.
,
Tseng
C. C.
,
Bjekic
G.
,
Greenberg
S.
(
1999
).
A requirement for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in pseudopod extension.
J. Biol. Chem
274
,
1240
1247
Cox
D.
,
Dale
B. M.
,
Kashiwada
M.
,
Helgason
C. D.
,
Greenberg
S.
(
2001
).
A regulatory role for Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP) in phagocytosis mediated by fcgamma receptors and complement receptor 3 (alpha(M)beta(2); CD11b/CD18).
J. Exp. Med
193
,
61
72
Critchley
D. R.
,
Holt
M. R.
,
Barry
S. T.
,
Priddle
H.
,
Hemmings
L.
,
Norman
J.
(
1999
).
Integrin-mediated cell adhesion: the cytoskeletal connection.
Biochem. Soc. Symp
65
,
79
99
Critchley
D. R.
(
2000
).
Focal adhesions—the cytoskeletal connection.
Curr. Opin. Cell Biol
12
,
133
139
Crowley
M. T.
,
Costello
P. S.
,
Fitzer-Attas
C. J.
,
Turner
M.
,
Meng
F.
,
Lowell
C.
,
Tybulewicz
V. L.
,
DeFranco
A. L.
(
1997
).
A critical role for Syk in signal transduction and phagocytosis mediated by Fcgamma receptors on macrophages.
J. Exp. Med
186
,
1027
1039
D'Souza-Schorey
C.
,
Boshans
R. L.
,
McDonough
M.
,
Stahl
P. D.
,
Van Aelst
L.
(
1997
).
A role for POR1, a Rac1-interacting protein, in ARF6-mediated cytoskeletal rearrangements.
EMBO J
16
,
5445
5454
Darby
C.
,
Geahlen
R. L.
,
Schreiber
A. D.
(
1994
).
Stimulation of macrophage Fc gamma RIIIA activates the receptor-associated protein tyrosine kinase Syk and induces phosphorylation of multiple proteins including p95Vav and p62/GAP-associated protein.
J. Immunol
152
,
5429
5437
de Hostos
E. L.
,
Bradtke
B.
,
Lottspeich
F.
,
Guggenheim
R.
,
Gerisch
G.
(
1991
).
Coronin, an actin binding protein of Dictyostelium discoideum localized to cell surface projections, has sequence similarities to G protein beta subunits.
EMBO J
10
,
4097
4104
de Lanerolle
P.
,
Gorgas
G.
,
Li
X.
,
Schluns
K.
(
1993
).
Myosin light chain phosphorylation does not increase during yeast phagocytosis by macrophages.
J. Biol. Chem
268
,
16883
16886
Defacque
H.
,
Egeberg
M.
,
Habermann
A.
,
Diakonova
M.
,
Roy
C.
,
Mangeat
P.
,
Voelter
W.
,
Marriott
G.
,
Pfannstiel
J.
,
Faulstich
H.
, et al. 
. (
2000
).
Involvement of ezrin/moesin in de novo actin assembly on phagosomal membranes.
EMBO J
19
,
199
212
Dekker
L. V.
,
Leitges
M.
,
Altschuler
G.
,
Mistry
N.
,
McDermott
A.
,
Roes
J.
,
Segal
A. W.
(
2000
).
Protein kinase C-beta contributes to NADPH oxidase activation in neutrophils.
Biochem. J
347
,
285
289
Della Bianca
V.
,
Grzeskowiak
M.
,
Rossi
F.
(
1990
).
Studies on molecular regulation of phagocytosis and activation of the NADPH oxidase in neutrophils. IgG-and C3b-mediated ingestion and associated respiratory burst independent of phospholipid turnover and Ca2+transients.
J. Immunol
144
,
1411
1417
Della Bianca
V.
,
Grzeskowiak
M.
,
Dusi
S.
,
Rossi
F.
(
1993
).
Transmembrane signaling pathways involved in phagocytosis and associated activation of NADPH oxidase mediated by Fc gamma Rs in human neutrophils.
J. Leuk. Biol
53
,
427
438
Desjardins
M.
,
Celis
J. E.
,
van Meer
G.
,
Dieplinger
H.
,
Jahraus
A.
,
Griffiths
G.
,
Huber
L. A.
(
1994
).
Molecular characterization of phagosomes.
J. Biol. Chem
269
,
32194
32200
Detmers
P. A.
,
Wright
S. D.
,
Olsen
E.
,
Kimball
B.
,
Cohn
Z. A.
(
1987
).
Aggregation of complement receptors on human neutrophils in the absence of ligand.
J. Cell Biol
105
,
1137
1145
Devitt
A.
,
Moffatt
O. D.
,
Raykundalia
C.
,
Capra
J. D.
,
Simmons
D. L.
,
Gregory
C. D.
(
1998
).
Human CD14 mediates recognition and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells.
Nature
392
,
505
509
Diakonova
M.
,
Gerke
V.
,
Ernst
J.
,
Liautard
J. P.
,
van der Vusse
G.
,
Griffiths
G.
(
1997
).
Localization of five annexins in J774 macrophages and on isolated phagosomes.
J. Cell Sci
110
,
1199
1213
Diamond
M. S.
,
Staunton
D. E.
,
de Fougerolles
A. R.
,
Stacker
S. A.
,
Garcia-Aguilar
J.
,
Hibbs
M. L.
,
Springer
T. A.
(
1990
).
ICAM-1 (CD54): a counter-receptor for Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18).
J. Cell Biol
111
,
3129
3139
Diamond
M. S.
,
Garcia-Aguilar
J.
,
Bickford
J. K.
,
Corbi
A. L.
,
Springer
T. A.
(
1993
).
The I domain is a major recognition site on the leukocyte integrin Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) for four distinct adhesion ligands.
J. Cell Biol
120
,
1031
1043
Diamond
M. S.
,
Alon
R.
,
Parkos
C. A.
,
Quinn
M. T.
,
Springer
T. A.
(
1995
).
Heparin is an adhesive ligand for the leukocyte integrin Mac-1 (CD11b/CD1).
J. Cell Biol
130
,
1473
1482
Downey
G. P.
,
Botelho
R. J.
,
Butler
J. R.
,
Moltyaner
Y.
,
Chien
P.
,
Schreiber
A. D.
,
Grinstein
S.
(
1999
).
Phagosomal maturation, acidification, and inhibition of bacterial growth in nonphagocytic cells transfected with FcgammaRIIA receptors.
J. Biol. Chem
274
,
28436
28444
Dusi
S.
,
Donini
M.
,
Della Bianca
V.
,
Gandini
G.
,
Rossi
F.
(
1994
).
In human neutrophils the binding to immunocomplexes induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of Fc gamma RII but this phosphorylation is not an essential signal for Fc-mediated phagocytosis.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun
201
,
30
37
Edberg
J. C.
,
Lin
C. T.
,
Lau
D.
,
Unkeless
J. C.
,
Kimberly
R. P.
(
1995
).
The Ca2+dependence of human Fc gamma receptor-initiated phagocytosis.
J. Biol. Chem
270
,
22301
22307
Ellis
R. E.
,
Jacobson
D. M.
,
Horvitz
H. R.
(
1991
).
Genes required for the engulfment of cell corpses during programmed cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Genetics
129
,
79
94
Erpel
T.
,
Courtneidge
S. A.
(
1995
).
Src family protein tyrosine kinases and cellular signal transduction pathways.
Curr. Opin. Cell Biol
7
,
176
182
Evangelista
M.
,
Klebl
B. M.
,
Tong
A. H. Y.
,
Webb
B. A.
,
Leeuw
T.
,
Leberer
E.
,
Whiteway
M.
,
Thomas
D. Y.
,
Boone
C.
(
2000
).
A role for myosin-I in actin assembly through interactions with Vrp1p, Bee1p, and the Arp2/3 complex.
J. Cell Biol
148
,
353
362
Fadok
V. A.
,
Henson
P. M.
(
1998
).
Apoptosis: getting rid of the bodies.
Curr. Biol
8
,
693
695
Fadok
V. A.
,
Bratton
D. L.
,
Konowal
A.
,
Freed
P. W.
,
Westcott
J. Y.
,
Henson
P. M.
(
1998
).
Macrophages that have ingested apoptotic cells in vitro inhibit proinflammatory cytokine production through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms involving TGF-beta, PGE2, and PAF.
J. Clin. Invest
101
,
890
898
Fadok
V. A.
,
Bratton
D. L.
,
Rose
D. M.
,
Pearson
A.
,
Ezekewitz
R. A.
,
Henson
P. M.
(
2000
).
A receptor for phosphatidylserine-specific clearance of apoptotic cells.
Nature
405
,
85
90
Fallman
M.
,
Gullberg
M.
,
Hellberg
C.
,
Andersson
T.
(
1992
).
Complement receptor-mediated phagocytosis is associated with accumulation of phosphatidylcholine-derived diglyceride in human neutrophils. Involvement of phospholipase D and direct evidence for a positive feedback signal of protein kinase.
J. Biol. Chem
267
,
2656
2663
Fallman
M.
,
Andersson
R.
,
Andersson
T.
(
1993
).
Signaling properties of CR3 (CD11b/CD18) and CR1 (CD35) in relation to phagocytosis of complement-opsonized particles.
J. Immunol
151
,
330
338
Fish
K. N.
,
Schmid
S. L.
,
Damke
H.
(
2000
).
Evidence that dynamin-2 functions as a signal-transducing GTPase.
J. Cell Biol
150
,
145
154
Fitzer-Attas
C. J.
,
Lowry
M.
,
Crowley
M. T.
,
Finn
A. J.
,
Meng
F.
,
DeFranco
A. L.
,
Lowell
C. A.
(
2000
).
Fcgamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis in macrophages lacking the Src family tyrosine kinases Hck, Fgr, and Lyn.
J. Exp. Med
191
,
669
682
Franc
N. C.
,
White
K.
,
Ezekowitz
R. A. B.
(
1999
).
Phagocytosis and development: back to the future.
Curr. Opin. Immunol
11
,
47
52
Garman
S. C.
,
Wurzburg
B. A.
,
Tarchevskaya
S. S.
,
Kinet
J. P.
,
Jardetzky
T. S.
(
2000
).
Structure of the Fc fragment of human IgE bound to its high-affinity receptor FcepsilonRIalpha.
Nature
406
,
259
266
Ghazizadeh
S.
,
Bolen
J. B.
,
Fleit
H. B.
(
1994
).
Physical and functional association of Src-related protein tyrosine kinases with Fc gamma RII in monocytic THP-1 cells.
J. Biol. Chem
269
,
8878
8884
Ghazizadeh
S.
,
Bolen
J. B.
,
Fleit
H. B.
(
1995
).
Tyrosine phosphorylation and association of Syk with Fc gamma RII in monocytic THP-1 cells.
Biochem. J
305
,
669
674
Gold
E. S.
,
Underhill
D. M.
,
Morrissette
N. S.
,
Guo
J.
,
McNiven
M. A.
,
Aderem
A.
(
1999
).
Dynamin 2 is required for phagocytosis in macrophages.
J. Exp. Med
190
,
1849
1856
Gold
E. S.
,
Morrissette
N. S.
,
Underhill
D. M.
,
Guo
J.
,
Bassetti
M.
,
Aderem
A.
(
2000
).
Amphiphysin IIm, a novel amphiphysin II isoform, is required for macrophage phagocytosis.
Immunity
12
,
285
292
Goode
B. L.
,
Wong
J. J.
,
Butty
A. C.
,
Peter
M.
,
McCormack
A. L.
,
Yates
J. R.
,
Drubin
D. G.
,
Barnes
G.
(
1999
).
Coronin promotes the rapid assembly and cross-linking of actin filaments and may link the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons in yeast.
J. Cell Biol
144
,
83
98
Greenberg
S.
,
Burridge
K.
,
Silverstein
S. C.
(
1990
).
Colocalization ofF-actin and talin during Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis in mouse macrophages.
J. Exp. Med
172
,
1853
1856
Greenberg
S.
,
el Khoury
J.
,
di Virgilio
F.
,
Kaplan
E. M.
,
Silverstein
S. C.
(
1991
).
Ca(2+)-independent F-actin assembly and disassembly during Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis in mouse macrophages.
J. Cell Biol
113
,
757
767
Greenberg
S.
,
Chang
P.
,
Silverstein
S. C.
(
1993
).
Tyrosine phosphorylation is required for Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis in mouse macrophages.
J. Exp. Med
177
,
529
534
Greenberg
S.
,
Chang
P.
,
Silverstein
S. C.
(
1994
).
Tyrosine phosphorylation of the gamma subunit of Fc gamma receptors, p72syk, and paxillin during Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis in macrophages.
J. Biol. Chem
269
,
3897
3902
Greenberg
S.
,
Chang
P.
,
Wang
D. C.
,
Xavier
R.
,
Seed
B.
(
1996
).
Clustered syk tyrosine kinase domains trigger phagocytosis.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA
93
,
1103
1107
Greenberg
S.
(
1999
).
Modular components of phagocytosis.
J. Leuk. Biol
66
,
712
717
Gresham
B. H.
,
Dale
B. M.
,
Potter
J. W.
,
Chang
P. W.
,
Vines
C. M.
,
Lowell
C. A.
,
Lagenaur
C. F.
,
Willman
C. L.
(
2000
).
Negative regulation of phagocytosis in murine macrophages by the Src kinase family member, Fgr.
J. Exp. Med
191
,
515
528
Grogan
A.
,
Reeves
E.
,
Keep
N.
,
Wientjes
F.
,
Totty
N. F.
,
Burlingame
A. L.
,
Hsuan
J. J.
,
Segal
A. W.
(
1997
).
Cytosolic phox proteins interact with and regulate the assembly of coronin in neutrophils.
J. Cell Sci
110
,
3071
3081
Hackam
D. J.
,
Rotstein
O. D.
,
Schreiber
A.
,
Zhang
W.
,
Grinstein
S.
(
1997
).
Rho is required for the initiation of calcium signaling and phagocytosis by Fcgamma receptors in macrophages.
J. Exp. Med
186
,
955
966
Hackam
D. J.
,
Rotstein
O. D.
,
Sjolin
C.
,
Schreiber
A. D.
,
Trimble
W. S.
,
Grinstein
S.
(
1998
).
v-SNARE-dependent secretion is required for phagocytosis.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA
95
,
11691
11696
Harris
H. E.
,
Weeds
A. G.
(
1984
).
Plasma gelsolin caps and severs actin filaments.
FEBS Lett
177
,
184
188
Hartwig
J. H.
,
Thelen
M.
,
Rosen
A.
,
Janmey
P. A.
,
Nairn
A. C.
,
Aderem
A.
(
1992
).
MARCKS is an actin filament crosslinking protein regulated by protein kinase C and calcium-calmodulin.
Nature
356
,
618
622
Heiple
J. M.
,
Wright
S. D.
,
Allen
N. S.
,
Silverstein
S. C.
(
1990
).
Macrophages form circular zones of very close apposition to IgG-coated surfaces.
Cell Motil. Cytoskel
15
,
260
270
Hemmings
L.
,
Rees
D. J.
,
Ohanian
V.
,
Bolton
S. J.
,
Gilmore
A. P.
,
Patel
B.
,
Priddle
H.
,
Trevithick
J. E.
,
Hynes
R. O.
,
Critchley
D. R.
(
1996
).
Talin contains three actin-binding sites each of which is adjacent to a vinculin-binding site.
J. Cell Sci
109
,
2715
2726
Hiemstra
P. S.
,
Annema
A.
,
Schippers
E. F.
,
van Furth
R.
(
1992
).
Pertussis toxin partially inhibits phagocytosis of immunoglobulin G-opsonized Staphylococcus aureus by human granulocytes but does not affect intracellular killing.
Infect. Immun
60
,
202
205
Hitt
A. L.
,
Hartwig
J. H.
,
Luna
E. J.
(
1994
).
Ponticulin is the major high affinity link between the plasma membrane and the cortical actin network in Dictyostelium.
J. Cell Biol
126
,
1433
1444
Hosoya
H.
,
Kobayashi
R.
,
Tsukita
S.
,
Matsumura
F.
(
1992
).
Ca(2+)-regulated actin and phospholipid binding protein (68 kD-protein) from bovine liver: identification as a homologue for annexin VI and intracellular localization.
Cell Motil. Cytoskel
22
,
200
210
Hunter
S.
,
Huang
M. M.
,
Indik
Z. K.
,
Schreiber
A. D.
(
1993
).
Fc gamma RIIA-mediated phagocytosis and receptor phosphorylation in cells deficient in the protein tyrosine kinase Src.
Exp. Hematol
21
,
1492
1497
Hunter
S.
,
Indik
Z. K.
,
Kim
M. K.
,
Cauley
M. D.
,
Park
J. G.
,
Schreiber
A. D.
(
1998
).
Inhibition of Fcgamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis by a nonphagocytic Fcgamma receptor.
Blood
91
,
1762
1768
Indik
Z.
,
Kelly
C.
,
Chien
P.
,
Levinson
A. I.
,
Schreiber
A. D.
(
1991
).
Human Fc gamma RII, in the absence of other Fc gamma receptors, mediates a phagocytic signal.
J. Clin. Invest
88
,
1766
1771
Indik
Z. K.
,
Hunter
S.
,
Huang
M. M.
,
Pan
X. Q.
,
Chien
P.
,
Kelly
C.
,
Levinson
A. I.
,
Kimberly
R. P.
,
Schreiber
A. D.
(
1994
).
The high affinity Fc gamma receptor (CD64) induces phagocytosis in the absence of its cytoplasmic domain: the gamma subunit of Fc gamma RIIIA imparts phagocytic function to Fc gamma RI.
Exp. Hematol
22
,
599
606
Indik
Z. K.
,
Pan
X. Q.
,
Huang
M. M.
,
McKenzie
S. E.
,
Levinson
A. I.
,
Schreiber.
A. D.
(
1994
).
Insertion of cytoplasmic tyrosine sequences into the nonphagocytic receptor Fc gamma RIIB establishes phagocytic function.
Blood
83
,
2072
2080
Indik
Z. K.
,
Park
J. G.
,
Pan
X. Q.
,
Schreiber
A. D.
(
1995
).
Induction of phagocytosis by a protein tyrosine kinase.
Blood
85
,
1175
1180
Isakov
N.
(
1997
).
ITIMs and ITAMs. The Yin and Yang of antigen and Fc receptor-linked signaling machinery.
Immunol. Res
16
,
85
100
Izadi
K. D.
,
Erdreich-Epstein
A.
,
Liu
Y.
,
Durden
D. L.
(
1998
).
Characterization of Cbl-Nck and Nck-Pak1 interactions in myeloid FcgammaRII signaling.
Exp. Cell Res
245
,
330
342
Jaconi
M. E.
,
Lew
D. P.
,
Carpentier
J. L.
,
Magnusson
K. E.
,
Sjogren
M.
,
Stendahl
O.
(
1990
).
Cytosolic free calcium elevation mediates the phagosome-lysosome fusion during phagocytosis in human neutrophils.
J. Cell Biol
110
,
1555
1564
Jung
G.
,
Wu
X.
,
Hammer
J. A.
III
(
1996
).
Dictyostelium mutants lacking multiple classic myosin I isoforms reveal combinations of shared and distinct functions.
J. Cell Biol
133
,
305
323
Kaplan
G.
(
1977
).
Differences in the mode of phagocytosis with Fc and C3 receptors in macrophages.
Scand. J. Immunol
6
,
797
807
Karimi
K.
,
Lennartz
M. R.
(
1995
).
Protein kinase C activation precedes arachidonic acid release during IgG-mediated phagocytosis.
J. Immunol
155
,
5786
5794
Katagiri
K.
,
Katagiri
T.
,
Koyama
Y.
,
Morikawa
M.
,
Yamamoto
T.
,
Yoshida
T.
(
1991
).
Expression of src family genes during monocytic differentiation of HL-60 cells.
J. Immunol
146
,
701
707
Kaufman
M.
,
Leto
T.
,
Levy
R.
(
1996
).
Translocation of annexin I to plasma membranes and phagosomes in human neutrophils upon stimulation with opsonized zymosan: possible role in phagosome function.
Biochem. J
316
,
35
42
Kawasaki
H.
,
Springett
G. M.
,
Toki
S.
,
Canales
J. J.
,
Harlan
P.
,
Blumenstiel
J. P.
,
Chen
E. J.
,
Bany
I. A.
,
Mochizuki
N.
,
Ashbacher
A.
, et al. 
. (
1998
).
A Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor enriched highly in the basal ganglia.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA
95
,
13278
13283
Kiefer
F.
,
Brumell
J.
,
Al-Alawi
N.
,
Latour
S.
,
Cheng
A.
,
Veillette
A.
,
Grinstein
S.
,
Pawson
T.
(
1998
).
The Syk protein tyrosine kinase is essential for Fcgamma receptor signaling in macrophages and neutrophils.
Mol. Cell. Biol
18
,
4209
4220
Kimberly
R. P.
,
Ahlstrom
J. W.
,
Click
M. E.
,
Edberg
J. C.
(
1990
).
The glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-linked Fc gamma RIIIPMN mediates transmembrane signaling events distinct from Fc gamma RII.
J. Exp. Med
171
,
1239
1255
Kobayashi
K.
,
Takahashi
K.
,
Nagasawa
S.
(
1995
).
The role of tyrosine phosphorylation and Ca2+accumulation in Fc gamma-receptor-mediated phagocytosis of human neutrophils.
J. Biochem. (Tokyo)
117
,
1156
1161
Konzok
A.
,
Weber
I.
,
Simmeth
E.
,
Hacker
U.
,
Maniak
M.
,
Muller-Taubenberger
A.
(
1999
).
DAip1, a Dictyostelium homologue of the yeast actin-interacting protein 1, is involved in endocytosis, cytokinesis, and motility.
J. Cell Biol
146
,
453
464
Kwiatkowska
K.
,
Sobota
A.
(
1999
).
Signaling pathways in phagocytosis.
BioEssays
21
,
422
431
Lad
P. M.
,
Olson
C. V.
,
Grewal
I. S.
(
1986
).
A step sensitive to pertussis toxin and phorbol ester in human neutrophils regulates chemotaxis and capping but not phagocytosis.
FEBS Lett
200
,
91
96
Larsen
E. C.
,
DiGennaro
J. A.
,
Saito
N.
,
Mehta
S.
,
Loegering
D. J.
,
Mazurkiewicz
J. E.
,
Lennartz
M. R.
(
2000
).
Differential requirement for classic and novel PKC isoforms in respiratory burst and phagocytosis in RAW 264.7 cells.
J. Immunol
165
,
2809
2817
Latour
S.
,
Chow
L. M. L.
,
Veillette
A.
(
1996
).
Differential intrinsic enzymatic activity of Syk and Zap-70 protein-tyrosine kinases.
J. Biol. Chem
271
,
22782
22790
Lechler
T.
,
Shevchenko
A.
,
Li
R.
(
2000
).
Direct involvement of yeast type I myosins in Cdc42-dependent actin polymerization.
J. Cell Biol
148
,
363
374
Lennartz
M. R.
,
Yuen
A. F.
,
Masi
S. M.
,
Russell
D. G.
,
Buttle
K. F.
,
Smith
J. J.
(
1997
).
Phospholipase A2 inhibition results in sequestration of plasma membrane into electronlucent vesicles during IgG-mediated phagocytosis.
J. Cell Sci
110
,
2041
2052
Lennartz
M. R.
(
1999
).
Phospholipases and phagocytosis: the role of phospholipid-derived second messengers in phagocytosis.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol
31
,
415
430
Lew
D. P.
,
Andersson
T.
,
Hed
J.
,
Di Virgilio
F.
,
Pozzan
T.
,
Stendahl
O.
(
1985
).
Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent phagocytosis in human neutrophils.
Nature
315
,
509
511
Li
J.
,
Aderem
A.
(
1992
).
MacMARCKS, a novel member of the MARCKS family of protein kinase C substrates.
Cell
70
,
791
801
Liao
F.
,
Shin
H. S.
,
Rhee
S. G.
(
1992
).
Tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma 1 induced by cross-linking of the high-affinity or low-affinity Fc receptor for IgG in U937 cells.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA
89
,
3659
3663
Lorenzi
R.
,
Brickell
P. M.
,
Katz
D. R.
,
Kinnon
C.
,
Thrasher
A. J.
(
2000
).
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein is necessary for efficient IgG-mediated phagocytosis.
Blood
95
,
2943
2946
Lowry
M. B.
,
Duchemin
A. M.
,
Coggeshall
K. M.
,
Robinson
J. M.
,
Anderson
C. L.
(
1998
).
Chimeric receptors composed of phosphoinositide 3-kinase domains and FCgamma receptor ligand-binding domains mediate phagocytosis in COS fibroblasts.
J. Biol. Chem
273
,
24513
24520
Lowry
M. B.
,
Duchemin
A. M.
,
Robinson
J. M.
,
Anderson
C. L.
(
1998
).
Functional separation of pseudopod extension and particle internalization during Fc gamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis.
J. Exp. Med
187
,
161
176
Luna
E. J.
,
Wuestehube
L. J.
,
Chia
C. P.
,
Shariff
A.
,
Hitt
A. L.
,
Ingalls
H. M.
(
1990
).
Ponticulin, a developmentally-regulated plasma membrane glycoprotein, mediates actin binding and nucleation.
Dev. Genet
11
,
354
361
Ma
L.
,
Rohatgi
R.
,
Kirschner
M. W.
(
1998
).
The Arp2/3 complex mediates actin polymerization induced by the small GTP-binding protein Cdc42.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA
95
,
15362
15367
Machesky
L. M.
,
Reeves
E.
,
Wientjes
F.
,
Mattheyse
F. J.
,
Grogan
A.
,
Totty
N. F.
,
Burlingame
A. L.
,
Hsuan
J. J.
,
Segal
A. W.
(
1997
).
Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily conserved proteins.
Biochem. J
328
,
105
112
Machesky
L. M.
,
Insall
R. H.
(
1998
).
Scar1 and the related Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, regulate the actin cytoskeleton through the Arp2/3 complex.
Curr. Biol
8
,
1347
1356
Machesky
L. M.
,
Gould
K. L.
(
1999
).
The Arp2/3 complex: a multifunctional actin organizer.
Curr. Opin. Cell Biol
11
,
117
121
Machesky
L. M.
,
Insall
R. H.
(
1999
).
Signaling to actin dynamics.
J. Cell Biol
146
,
267
272
Machesky
L. M.
,
Mullins
R. D.
,
Higgs
H. N.
,
Kaiser
D. A.
,
Blanchoin
L.
,
May
R. C.
,
Hall
M. E.
,
Pollard
T. D.
(
1999
).
Scar, a WASp-related protein, activates nucleation of actin filaments by the Arp2/3 complex.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA
96
,
3739
3744
Machesky
L. M.
(
2000
).
The tails of two myosins.
J. Cell Biol
148
,
219
221
Madania
A.
,
Dumoulin
P.
,
Grava
S.
,
Kitamoto
H.
,
Scharer-Brodbeck
C.
,
Soulard
A.
,
Moreau
V.
,
Winsor
B.
(
1999
).
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue of human Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein Las17p interacts with the Arp2/3 complex.
Mol. Biol. Cell
10
,
3521
3538
Maniak
M.
,
Rauchenberger
R.
,
Albrecht
R.
,
Murphy
J.
,
Gerisch
G.
(
1995
).
Coronin involved in phagocytosis: dynamics of particle-induced relocalization visualized by a green fluorescent protein Tag.
Cell
83
,
915
924
Mansfield
P. J.
,
Shayman
J. A.
,
Boxer
L. A.
(
2000
).
Regulation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte phagocytosis by myosin light chain kinase after activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase.
Blood
95
,
2407
2412
Martin
T. F.
(
1998
).
Phosphoinositide lipids as signaling molecules: common themes for signal transduction, cytoskeletal regulation, and membrane trafficking.
Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol
14
,
231
264
Massol
P.
,
Montcourrier
P.
,
Guillemot
J. C.
,
Chavrier
P.
(
1998
).
Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis requires CDC42 and Rac1.
EMBO J
17
,
6219
6229
Matsuda
M.
,
Park
J. G.
,
Wang
D. C.
,
Hunter
S.
,
Chien
P.
,
Schreiber
A. D.
(
1996
).
Abrogation of the Fc gamma receptor IIA-mediated phagocytic signal by stem-loop Syk antisense oligonucleotides.
Mol. Biol. Cell
7
,
1095
1106
Meagher
L. C.
,
Savill
J. S.
,
Baker
A.
,
Fuller
R. W.
,
Haslett
C.
(
1992
).
Phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils does not induce macrophage release of thromboxane B2.
J. Leuk. Biol
52
,
269
273
Melendez
A. J.
,
Harnett
M. M.
,
Allen
J. M.
(
1999
).
Differentiation-dependent switch in protein kinase C isoenzyme activation by FcgammaRI, the human high-affinity receptor for immunoglobulin G.
Immunology
96
,
457
464
Mermall
V.
,
Post
P. L.
,
Mooseker
M. S.
(
1998
).
Unconventionalmyosins in cell movement, membrane traffic, and signal transduction.
Science
279
,
527
533
Morrissette
N. S.
,
Gold
E. S.
,
Guo
J.
,
Hamerman
J. A.
,
Ozinsky
A.
,
Bedian
V.
,
Aderem
A. A.
(
1999
).
Isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed against novel components of macrophage phagosomes.
J. Cell Sci
112
,
4705
4713
Mullins
R. D.
,
Heuser
J. A.
,
Pollard
T. D.
(
1998
).
The interaction of Arp2/3 complex with actin: nucleation, high affinity pointed end capping, and formation of branching networks of filaments.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA
95
,
6181
6186
Nagaishi
K.
,
Adachi
R.
,
Matsui
S.
,
Yamaguchi
T.
,
Kasahara
T.
,
Suzuki
K.
(
1999
).
Herbimycin A inhibits both dephosphorylation and translocation of cofilin induced by opsonized zymosan in macrophagelike U937 cells.
J. Cell. Physiol
180
,
345
354
Niewohner
J.
,
Weber
I.
,
Maniak
M.
,
Muller-Taubenberger
A.
,
Gerisch
G.
(
1997
).
Talin-null cells of Dictyostelium are strongly defective in adhesion to particle and substrate surfaces and slightly impaired in cytokinesis.
J. Cell Biol
138
,
349
361
Ninomiya
N.
,
Hazeki
K.
,
Fukui
Y.
,
Seya
T.
,
Okada
T.
,
Hazeki
O.
,
Ui
M.
(
1994
).
Involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in Fc gamma receptor signaling.
J. Biol. Chem
269
,
22732
22737
Oliver
J. M.
,
Burg
D. L.
,
Wilson
B. S.
,
McLaughlin
J. L.
,
Geahlen
R. L.
(
1994
).
Inhibition of mast cell Fc epsilon R1-mediated signaling and effector function by the Syk-selective inhibitor, piceatannol.
J. Biol. Chem
269
,
29697
29703
Otto
J. J.
(
1994
).
Actin-bundling proteins.
Curr. Opin. Cell Biol
6
,
105
109
Oxvig
C.
,
Lu
C.
,
Springer
T. A.
(
1999
).
Conformational changes in tertiary structure near the ligand binding site of an integrin I domain.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA
96
,
2215
2220
Pan
X. Q.
,
Darby
C.
,
Indik
Z. K.
,
Schreiber
A. D.
(
1999
).
Activation of three classes of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases following Fc gamma receptor crosslinking in human monocytes.
Clin. Immunol
90
,
55
64
Park
J. G.
,
Isaacs
R. E.
,
Chien
P.
,
Schreiber
A. D.
(
1993
).
In the absence of other Fc receptors, Fc gamma RIIIA transmits a phagocytic signal that requires the cytoplasmic domain of its gamma subunit.
J. Clin. Invest
92
,
1967
1973
Parnaik
R.
,
Raff
M. C.
,
Scholes
J.
(
2000
).
Differences between the clearance of apoptotic cells by professional and non-professional phagocytes.
Curr. Biol
10
,
857
860
Pavalko
F. M.
,
LaRoche
S. M.
(
1993
).
Activation of human neutrophils induces an interaction between the integrin beta 2-subunit (CD18) and the actin binding protein alpha-actinin.
J. Immunol
151
,
3795
3807
Peracino
B.
,
Borleis
J.
,
Jin
T.
,
Westphal
M.
,
Schwartz
J. M.
,
Wu
L.
,
Bracco
E.
,
Gerisch
G.
,
Devreotes
P.
,
Bozzaro
S.
(
1998
).
G protein beta subunit-null mutants are impaired in phagocytosis and chemotaxis due to inappropriate regulation of the actin cytoskeleton.
J. Cell Biol
141
,
1529
1537
Peterson
M. D.
,
Novak
K. D.
,
Reedy
M. C.
,
Ruman
J. I.
,
Titus
M. A.
(
1995
).
Molecular genetic analysis of myoC, a Dictyostelium myosin I.
J. Cell Sci
108
,
1093
1103
Petty
H. R.
,
Todd
R. F. D.
(
1993
).
Receptor-receptor interactions of complement receptor type 3 in neutrophil membranes.
J. Leuk. Biol
54
,
492
494
Pizon
V.
,
Desjardins
M.
,
Bucci
C.
,
Parton
R. G.
,
Zerial
M.
(
1994
).
Association of Rap1a and Rap1b proteins with late endocytic/phagocytic compartments and Rap2a with the Golgi complex.
J. Cell Sci
107
,
1661
1670
Pollard
T. D.
,
Blanchoin
L.
,
Mullins
R. D.
(
2000
).
Molecular mechanisms controlling actin filament dynamics in nonmuscle cells.
Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct
29
,
545
576
Pommier
C. G.
,
Inada
S.
,
Fries
L. F.
,
Takahashi
T.
,
Frank
M. M.
,
Brown
E. J.
(
1983
).
Plasma fibronectin enhances phagocytosis of opsonized particles by human peripheral blood monocytes.
J. Exp. Med
157
,
1844
1854
Quilliam
L. A.
,
Lambert
Q. T.
,
Mickelson-Young
L. A.
,
Westwick
J. K.
,
Sparks
A. B.
,
Kay
B. K.
,
Jenkins
N. A.
,
Gilbert
D. J.
,
Copeland
N. G.
,
Der
C. J.
(
1996
).
Isolation of a NCK-associated kinase, PRK2, anSH3-binding protein and potential effector of Rho protein signaling.
J. Biol. Chem
271
,
28772
28776
Rameh
L. E.
,
Chen
C. S.
,
Cantley
L. C.
(
1995
).
Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)P3 interacts with SH2 domains and modulates PI 3-kinase association with tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins.
Cell
83
,
821
830
Ravetch
J. V.
,
Clynes
R. A.
(
1998
).
Divergent roles for Fc receptors and complement in vivo.
Annu. Rev. Immunol
16
,
421
432
Rengan
R.
,
Ochs
H. D.
,
Sweet
L. I.
,
Keil
M. L.
,
Gunning
W. T.
,
Lachant
N. A.
,
Boxer
L. A.
,
Omann
G. M.
(
2000
).
Actin cytoskeletal function is spared, but apoptosis is increased, in WAS patient hematopoietic cells.
Blood
95
,
1283
1292
Rezabek
B. L.
,
Rodriguez-Paris
J. M.
,
Cardelli
J. A.
,
Chia
C. P.
(
1997
).
Phagosomal proteins of Dictyostelium discoideum.
J. Euk. Microbiol
44
,
284
292
Ridley
A. J.
,
Hall
A.
(
1992
).
The small GTP-binding protein rho regulates the assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers in response to growth factors.
Cell
70
,
389
399
Rivero-Lezcano
O. M.
,
Marcilla
A.
,
Sameshima
J. H.
,
Robbins
K. C.
(
1995
).
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein physically associates with Nck through Src homology 3 domains.
Mol. Cell. Biol
15
,
5725
5731
Rivero
F.
,
Koppel
B.
,
Peracino
B.
,
Bozzaro
S.
,
Siegert
F.
,
Weijer
C. J.
,
Schleicher
M.
,
Albrecht
R.
,
Noegel
A. A.
(
1996
).
The role of the cortical cytoskeleton: F-actin crosslinking proteins protect against osmotic stress, ensure cell size, cell shape and motility, and contribute to phagocytosis and development.
J. Cell Sci
109
,
2679
2691
Rivero
F.
,
Albrecht
R.
,
Dislich
H.
,
Bracco
E.
,
Graciotti
L.
,
Bozzaro
S.
,
Noegel
A. A.
(
1999
).
RacF1, a novel member of the Rho protein family in Dictyostelium discoideum, associates transiently with cell contact areas, macropinosomes, and phagosomes.
Mol. Biol. Cell
10
,
1205
1219
Rivero
F.
,
Furukawa
R.
,
Fechheimer
M.
,
Noegel
A. A.
(
1999
).
Three actin cross-linking proteins, the 34 kDa actin-bundling protein, alpha-actinin and gelation factor (ABP-120), have both unique and redundant roles in the growth and development of Dictyostelium.
J. Cell Sci
112
,
2737
2751
Rohatgi
R.
,
Ma
L.
,
Miki
H.
,
Lopez
M.
,
Kirchhausen
T.
,
Takenawa
T.
,
Kirschner
M. W.
(
1999
).
The interaction between N-WASP and the Arp2/3 complex links Cdc42-dependent signals to actin assembly.
Cell
97
,
221
231
Rossi
F.
,
Della Bianca
V.
,
Grzeskowiak
M.
,
Bazzoni
F.
(
1989
).
Studies on molecular regulation of phagocytosis in neutrophils. Con A-mediated ingestion and associated respiratory burst independent of phosphoinositide turnover, rise in [Ca2+]i, and arachidonic acid release.
J. Immunol
142
,
1652
1660
Roubey
R. A.
,
Ross
G. D.
,
Merrill
J. T.
,
Walton
F.
,
Reed
W.
,
Winchester
R. J.
,
Buyon
J. P.
(
1991
).
Staurosporine inhibits neutrophil phagocytosis but not iC3b binding mediated by CR3 (CD11b/CD18).
J. Immunol
146
,
3557
3562
Rozelle
A. L.
,
Machesky
L. M.
,
Yamamoto
M.
,
Driessens
M. H.
,
Insall
R. H.
,
Roth
M. G.
,
Luby-Phelps
K.
,
Marriott
G.
,
Hall
A.
,
Yin
H. L.
(
2000
).
Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate induces actin-based movement of raft-enriched vesicles through WASP-Arp2/3.
Curr. Biol
10
,
311
320
Salgia
R.
,
Uemura
N.
,
Okuda
K.
,
Li
J. L.
,
Pisick
E.
,
Sattler
M.
,
de Jong
R.
,
Druker
B.
,
Heisterkamp
N.
,
Chen
L. B.
, et al. 
. (
1995
).
CRKL links p210BCR/ABL with paxillin in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells.
J. Biol. Chem
270
,
29145
29150
Salmon
J. E.
,
Brogle
E. J.
,
Edberg
J. C.
,
Kimberly
R. P.
(
1991
).
Fcgamma receptor III induces actin polymerization in human neutrophils and primes phagocytosis mediated by Fcgamma receptor II.
J. Immunol
146
,
997
1004
Sampath
R.
,
Gallagher
P. J.
,
Pavalko
F. M.
(
1998
).
Cytoskeletal interactions with the leukocyte integrin beta2 cytoplasmic tail. Activation-dependent regulation of associations with talin and alpha-actinin.
J. Biol. Chem
273
,
33588
33594
Sanchez-Mejorada
G.
,
Rosales
C.
(
1998
).
Fcgamma receptor-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in monocytes is independent of Ras.
J. Biol. Chem
273
,
27610
27619
Sanchez-Mejorada
G.
,
Rosales
C.
(
1998
).
Signal transduction by immunoglobulin Fc receptors.
J. Leuk. Biol
63
,
521
533
Sato
N.
,
Kim
M. K.
,
Schreiber
A. D.
(
1999
).
Enhancement of fcgamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis by transforming mutants of Cbl.
J. Immunol
163
,
6123
6131
Savill
J.
(
1998
).
Apoptosis. Phagocytic docking without shocking.
Nature
392
,
442
443
Schmid
S. L.
,
McNiven
M. A.
,
De Camilli
P.
(
1998
).
Dynamin and its partners: a progress report.
Curr. Opin. Cell Biol
10
,
504
512
Schwarz
E. C.
,
Neuhaus
E. M.
,
Kistler
C.
,
Henkel
A. W.
,
Soldati
T.
(
2000
).
Dictyostelium myosin IK is involved in the maintenance of cortical tension and affects motility and phagocytosis.
J. Cell Sci
113
,
621
633
Seastone
D. J.
,
Lee
E.
,
Bush
J.
,
Knecht
D.
,
Cardelli
J.
(
1998
).
Overexpression of a novel rho family GTPase, RacC, induces unusual actin-based structures and positively affects phagocytosis in Dictyostelium discoideum.
Mol. Biol. Cell
9
,
2891
2904
Seastone
D. J.
,
Zhang
L.
,
Buczynski
G.
,
Rebstein
P.
,
Weeks
G.
,
Spiegelman
G.
,
Cardelli
J.
(
1999
).
The small Mr Ras-like GTPase Rap1 and the phospholipase C pathway act to regulate phagocytosis in Dictyostelium discoideum.
Mol. Biol. Cell
10
,
393
406
Serrander
L.
,
Fallman
M.
,
Stendahl
O.
(
1996
).
Activation of phospholipase D is an early event in integrin-mediated signalling leading to phagocytosis in human neutrophils.
Inflammation
20
,
439
450
Serrander
L.
,
Skarman
P.
,
Rasmussen
B.
,
Witke
W.
,
Lew
D. P.
,
Krause
K. H.
,
Stendahl
O.
,
Nusse
O.
(
2000
).
Selective inhibition of IgG-mediated phagocytosis in gelsolin-deficient murine neutrophils.
J. Immunol
165
,
2451
2457
She
H. Y.
,
Rockow
S.
,
Tang
J.
,
Nishimura
R.
,
Skolnik
E. Y.
,
Chen
M.
,
Margolis
B.
,
Li
W.
(
1997
).
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein is associated with the adapter protein Grb2 and the epidermal growth factor receptor in living cells.
Mol. Biol. Cell
8
,
1709
1721
Simon
D. I.
,
Chen
Z.
,
Xu
H.
,
Li
C. Q.
,
Dong
J.
,
McIntire
L. V.
,
Ballantyne
C. M.
,
Zhang
L.
,
Furman
M. I.
,
Berndt
M. C.
, et al. 
. (
2000
).
Platelet glycoprotein Ibalpha is a counterreceptor for the leukocyte integrin Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18).
J. Exp. Med
192
,
193
204
Smith
L. C.
,
Azumi
K.
,
Nonaka
M.
(
1999
).
Complement systems in invertebrates. The ancient alternative and lectin pathways.
Immunopharmacology
42
,
107
120
Smits
E.
,
Van Criekinge
W.
,
Plaetinck
G.
,
Bogaert
T.
(
1999
).
The human homologue of Caenorhabditis elegans CED-6 specifically promotes phagocytosis of apoptotic cells.
Curr. Biol
9
,
1351
1354
Snapper
S. B.
,
Rosen
F. S.
(
1999
).
The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP): roles in signaling and cytoskeletal organization.
Annu. Rev. Immunol
17
,
905
929
Sondermann
P.
,
Huber
R.
,
Oosthuizen
V.
,
Jacob
U.
(
2000
).
The 3.2-angstrom crystal structure of the human IgG1 Fc fragment-FcgammaRIII complex.
Nature
406
,
267
273
Stahl
P. D.
,
Ezekowitz
R. A.
(
1998
).
The mannose receptor is a pattern recognition receptor involved in host defense.
Curr. Opin. Immunol
10
,
50
55
Stendahl
O. I.
,
Hartwig
J. H.
,
Brotschi
E. A.
,
Stossel
T. P.
(
1980
).
Distribution of actin-binding protein and myosin in macrophages during spreading and phagocytosis.
J. Cell Biol
84
,
215
224
Strzelecka
A.
,
Pyrzynska
B.
,
Kwiatkowska
K.
,
Sobota
A.
(
1997
).
Syk kinase, tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins and actin filaments accumulate at forming phagosomes during Fcgamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis.
Cell Motil. Cytoskel
38
,
287
296
Su
H. P.
,
Brugnera
E.
,
Van Criekinge
W.
,
Smits
E.
,
Hengartner
M.
,
Bogaert
T.
,
Ravichandran
K. S.
(
2000
).
Identification and characterization of a dimerization domain in CED-6, an adapter protein involved in engulfment of apoptotic cells.
J. Biol. Chem
275
,
9542
9549
Suzuki
T.
(
1991
).
Signal transduction mechanisms through Fc gamma receptors on the mouse macrophage surface.
FASEB J
5
,
187
193
Svitkina
T. M.
,
Borisy
G. G.
(
1999
).
Arp2/3 complex and actin depolymerizing factor/cofilin in dendritic organization and treadmilling of actin filament array in lamellipodia.
J. Cell Biol
145
,
1009
1026
Swanson
J. A.
,
Johnson
M. T.
,
Beningo
K.
,
Post
P.
,
Mooseker
M.
,
Araki
N.
(
1999
).
A contractile activity that closes phagosomes in macrophages.
J. Cell Sci
112
,
307
316
Thornton
B. P.
,
Vetvicka
V.
,
Pitman
M.
,
Goldman
R. C.
,
Ross
G. D.
(
1996
).
Analysis of the sugar specificity and molecular location of thebeta-glucan-binding lectin site of complement receptor type 3 (CD11b/CD18).
J. Immunol
156
,
1235
1246
Titus
M. A.
(
1999
).
A class VII unconventional myosin is required for phagocytosis.
Curr. Biol
9
,
1297
1303
Tjelle
T. E.
,
Lovdal
T.
,
Berg
T.
(
2000
).
Phagosome dynamics and function.
BioEssays
22
,
255
263
Tuijnman
W. B.
,
Capel
P. J.
,
van de Winkel
J. G.
(
1992
).
Human low-affinity IgG receptor Fc gamma RIIa (CD32) introduced into mouse fibroblasts mediates phagocytosis of sensitized erythrocytes.
Blood
79
,
1651
1656
Turner
C. E.
(
1998
).
Paxillin.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol
30
,
955
959
Underhill
D. M.
,
Chen
J.
,
Allen
L. A.
,
Aderem
A.
(
1998
).
MacMARCKS is not essential for phagocytosis in macrophages.
J. Biol. Chem
273
,
33619
33623
Valerius
N. H.
,
Stendahl
O.
,
Hartwig
J. H.
,
Stossel
T. P.
(
1981
).
Distribution of actin-binding protein and myosin in polymorphonuclear leukocytes during locomotion and phagocytosis.
Cell
24
,
195
202
van Egmond
M. H.
,
Hanneke van Vuuren
A. J.
,
van de Winkel
J. G.
(
1999
).
The human Fc receptor for IgA (Fc alpha RI, CD89) on transgenic peritoneal macrophages triggers phagocytosis and tumor cell lysis.
Immunol. Lett
68
,
83
87
Voll
R. E.
,
Herrmann
M.
,
Roth
E. A.
,
Stach
C.
,
Kalden
J. R.
,
Girkontaite
I.
(
1997
).
Immunosuppressive effects of apoptotic cells.
Nature
390
,
350
351
Walzog
B.
,
Schuppan
D.
,
Heimpel
C.
,
Hafezi-Moghadam
A.
,
Gaehtgens
P.
,
Ley
K.
(
1995
).
The leukocyte integrin Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) contributes to binding of human granulocytes to collagen.
Exp. Cell Res
218
,
28
38
Watson
J. M.
,
Harding
T. W.
,
Golubovskaya
V.
,
Morris
J. S.
,
Hunter
D.
,
Li
X.
,
Haskill
J. S.
,
Earp
H. S.
(
2001
).
Inhibition of the calcium dependent tyrosine kinase, (CADTK), blocks monocyte spreading and motility.
J. Biol. Chem
267
,
3536
3542
Welch
M. D.
,
DePace
A. H.
,
Verma
S.
,
Iwamatsu
A.
,
Mitchison
T. J.
(
1997
).
The human Arp2/3 complex is composed of evolutionarily conserved subunits and is localized to cellular regions of dynamic actin filament assembly.
J. Cell Biol
138
,
375
384
Winter
D.
,
Lechler
T.
,
Li
R.
(
1999
).
Activation of the yeast Arp2/3complex by Bee1p, a WASP-family protein.
Curr. Biol
9
,
501
504
Wright
S. D.
,
Weitz
J. I.
,
Huang
A. J.
,
Levin
S. M.
,
Silverstein
S. C.
,
Loike
J. D.
(
1988
).
Complement receptor type three (CD11b/CD18) of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes recognizes fibrinogen.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA
85
,
7734
7738
Wu
Y. C.
,
Horvitz
H. R.
(
1998
).
C. elegans phagocytosis and cell-migration protein CED-5 is similar to human DOCK180.
Nature
392
,
501
504
Xie
J.
,
Li
R.
,
Kotovuori
P.
,
Vermot-Desroches
C.
,
Wijdenes
J.
,
Arnaout
M. A.
,
Nortamo
P.
,
Gahmberg
C. G.
(
1995
).
Intercellular adhesion molecule-2 (CD102) binds to the leukocyte integrin CD11b/CD18 through the A domain.
J. Immunol
155
,
3619
3628
Yamada
A.
,
Dileepan
K. N.
,
Stechschulte
D. J.
,
Suzuki
T.
(
1989
).
Regulation of Fc gamma 2a receptor-mediated phagocytosis by a murine macrophage-like cell line, P388D1: involvement of casein kinase II activity associated with Fc gamma 2a receptor.
J. Mol. Cell. Immunol
4
,
191
199
Yarar
D.
,
To
W.
,
Abo
A.
,
Welch
M. D.
(
1999
).
The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein directs actin-based motility by stimulating actin nucleation with the Arp2/3 complex.
Curr. Biol
9
,
555
558
Yin
H. L.
,
Albrecht
J. H.
,
Fattoum
A.
(
1981
).
Identification of gelsolin, a Ca2+-dependent regulatory protein of actin gel-sol transformation, and its intracellular distribution in a variety of cells and tissues.
J. Cell Biol
91
,
901
906
Yokota
A.
,
Yukawa
K.
,
Yamamoto
A.
,
Sugiyama
K.
,
Suemura
M.
,
Tashiro
Y.
,
Kishimoto
T.
,
Kikutani
H.
(
1992
).
Two forms of the low-affinity Fc receptor for IgE differentially mediate endocytosis and phagocytosis: identification of the critical cytoplasmic domains.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA
89
,
5030
5034
Young
J. D.
,
Ko
S. S.
,
Cohn
Z. A.
(
1984
).
The increase in intracellular free calcium associated with IgG gamma 2b/gamma 1 Fc receptor-ligand interactions: role in phagocytosis.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA
81
,
5430
5434
Zeng
H.
,
Yoshida
T.
,
Kurosaki
T.
,
Yamamura
H.
,
Oshima
A.
,
Kitamura
D.
,
Watanabe
T.
,
Morikawa
M.
(
1995
).
Phosphorylation of HS1, GAP-associated p190 and a novel GAP-associated p60 protein by cross-linking of Fc gamma RIIIA.
J. Biochem. (Tokyo)
118
,
1166
1174
Zhang
Q.
,
Cox
D.
,
Tseng
C. C.
,
Donaldson
J. G.
,
Greenberg
S.
(
1998
).
A requirement for ARF6 in Fcgamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis in macrophages.
J. Biol. Chem
273
,
19977
19981
Zhang
Q.
,
Calafat
J.
,
Janssen
H.
,
Greenberg
S.
(
1999
).
ARF6 is required for growth factor-and rac-mediated membrane ruffling in macrophages at a stage distal to rac membrane targeting.
Mol. Cell. Biol
19
,
8158
8168
Zheleznyak
A.
,
Brown
E. J.
(
1992
).
Immunoglobulin-mediated phagocytosis by human monocytes requires protein kinase C activation. Evidence for protein kinase C translocation to phagosomes.
J. Biol. Chem
267
,
12042
12048
Zhou
M.
,
Todd
R. F. D.
,
van de Winkel
J. G.
,
Petty
H. R.
(
1993
).
Cocapping of the leukoadhesin molecules complement receptor type 3 and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 with Fc gamma receptor III on human neutrophils. Possible role of lectin-like interactions.
J. Immunol
150
,
3030
3041
Zhou
M. J.
,
Brown
E. J.
(
1994
).
CR3 (Mac-1, alpha M beta 2, CD11b/CD18) and Fc gamma RIII cooperate in generation of a neutrophil respiratory burst: requirement for Fc gamma RIII and tyrosine phosphorylation.
J. Cell Biol
125
,
1407
1416
Zhou
Z.
,
Hartwleg
E.
,
Horvitz
H. R.
(
2001
).
CED-1 is a transmembrane receptor that mediates cell corpse engulfment in C. elegans.
Cell
104
,
43
56
Zhu
Z.
,
Bao
Z.
,
Li
J.
(
1995
).
MacMARCKS mutation blocksmacrophage phagocytosis of zymosan.
J. Biol. Chem
270
,
17652
17655
Zimmerli
S.
,
Majeed
M.
,
Gustavsson
M.
,
Stendahl
O.
,
Sanan
D. A.
,
Ernst
J. D.
(
1996
).
Phagosome-lysosome fusion is a calcium-independent event in macrophages.
J. Cell Biol
132
,
49
61
This content is only available via PDF.