We have generated 9 site-specific mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae actin. These mutants display a variety of phenotypes when expressed in vivo, including slow actin filament turnover, slow fluid-phase endocytosis, and defects in actin organization. Actin mutation D157E confers resistance to the actin-sequestering drug, latrunculin A. Latrunculin A inhibits nucleotide exchange on wild-type yeast actin but not on D157E actin, suggesting that this residue is part of the latrunculin A binding site. We have refined our earlier map of the phalloidin binding site on actin, demonstrating a requirement for residue G158 in addition to D179 and R177. The nine new actin mutants as well as a large collection of existing actin mutants were also used to identify the putative binding site of another actin binding drug, tolytoxin, on actin. The actin alleles that result in decreased sensitivity to this drug cluster at a site near the nucleotide-binding pocket. Actin purified from one of these mutants has a reduced affinity for tolytoxin. In addition, tolytoxin causes a 2.4-fold increase in the t1/2 of ATP exchange, further suggesting that this drug binds near the nucleotide-binding pocket of actin. We note that the binding sites for latrunculin A, phalloidin, and tolytoxin all map close to the actin nucleotide binding pocket.
New actin mutants allow further characterization of the nucleotide binding cleft and drug binding sites
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L.D. Belmont, G.M. Patterson, D.G. Drubin; New actin mutants allow further characterization of the nucleotide binding cleft and drug binding sites. J Cell Sci 1 May 1999; 112 (9): 1325–1336. doi: https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.112.9.1325
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