SpSHR2 (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus steroid hormone receptor 2) is a nuclear receptor, encoded by a maternal RNA in the sea urchin embryo. These maternal SpSHR2 transcripts, which are present in all cells, persist until the blastula stage and then are rapidly turned over. A small fraction of the embryonic SpSHR2 protein is maternal, but the majority of this nuclear receptor in the embryo is the product of new synthesis, presumably from the maternal RNA after fertilization. In agreement with the mRNA distribution, the SpSHR2 protein is also detected in all embryonic cells. Contrary to the RNA though, the SpSHR2 protein persists throughout embryonic development to the pluteus stage, long after the mRNA is depleted. Following fertilization and as soon as the 2-cell stage, the cytoplasmic SpSHR2 protein enters rapidly into the embryonic nuclei where it appears in the form of speckles. During subsequent stages (from fourth cleavage onward), SpSHR2 resides in speckled form in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the embryonic cells. The cytoplasmic localization of SpSHR2 differs between polarized and non-polarized cells, maintaining an apical position in the ectoderm and endoderm versus a uniform distribution in mesenchyme cells. Following the end of embryonic development (pluteus stage), the SpSHR2 protein is depleted from all tissues. During the ensuing four weeks of larval development, the SpSHR2 is not detected in either the larval or the rudiment cells which will give rise to the adult. Just prior to metamorphosis, at about 35 days post-fertilization, the protein is detected again but in contrast to the uniform distribution in the early embryo, the larval SpSHR2 is specifically expressed in cells of the mouth epithelium and the epaulettes. In adult ovaries and testes, SpSHR2 is specifically detected in the myoepithelial cells surrounding the ovarioles and the testicular acini. Nuclear SpSHR2 in blastula extracts binds to the C1R hormone response element in the upstream promoter region of the CyIIIb actin gene indicating that the latter may be a target of this nuclear receptor in the sea urchin embryo.
Embryonic and post-embryonic utilization and subcellular localization of the nuclear receptor SpSHR2 in the sea urchin
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A. Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, P.S. Leahy, C.N. Flytzanis; Embryonic and post-embryonic utilization and subcellular localization of the nuclear receptor SpSHR2 in the sea urchin. J Cell Sci 1 August 1998; 111 (15): 2159–2169. doi: https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.111.15.2159
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