Cell morphogenesis is a fundamental phenomenon that involves understanding a number of biological processes including the developmental program, polarity and cell division. Fission yeast sts5 mutant cells are round rather than cylindrical with cortical actin randomly dispersed. Genetic analyses demonstrate that the sts5+ gene is required for maintenance of cell shape during interphase when the cell normally exhibits polarised growth. The sts5 mutant is not defective in cell wall integrity. Deletion of ppe1+, which encodes a type 2A-like protein phosphatase, shows similar phenotypes to the sts5 mutant and these two mutations are synthetically lethal. Multicopy plasmids containing either the protein kinase C-like gene pck1+ or the protein tyrosine phosphatase pyp1+, an inhibitor of an osmosensing Sty1/Spc1 MAP-kinase, are capable of suppressing the sts5 mutation. Consistent with this, we have found that the wis1 mutation, which is defective in a MAP-kinase kinase of the pathway, suppresses the sts5 mutation. The predicted sts5+ gene product exhibits sequence similarity to two yeast proteins, Dis3 and Ssd1 and a nematode protein, F46E8.6, where the former two yeast proteins have been shown to be involved in cell cycle control and cell morphogenesis. The sts5+ gene is not essential for cell viability, but is absolutely required for polarised growth as the gene disruption showed the same phenotypes as those of the original mutants. Overexpression of the sts5+ gene resulted in altered cell morphology and, cortical actin in these overproducing cells was also abnormal, fainter and often dispersed. Anti-Sts5 antibody specifically detected a 130 kDa protein by western blotting. A green fluorescent protein-Sts5 fusion protein localised in the cytoplasm with a discrete punctate pattern, suggesting that the Sts5 protein is a component of a novel structure. These results have indicated that the Sts5 protein is a crucial determinant of polarised growth and that it functionally interacts with the serine/threonine phosphatase, protein kinase C, and an osmosensing MAP-kinase to maintain cell morphology.
The fission yeast sts5+ gene is required for maintenance of growth polarity and functionally interacts with protein kinase C and an osmosensing MAP-kinase pathway
T. Toda, H. Niwa, T. Nemoto, S. Dhut, M. Eddison, T. Matsusaka, M. Yanagida, D. Hirata; The fission yeast sts5+ gene is required for maintenance of growth polarity and functionally interacts with protein kinase C and an osmosensing MAP-kinase pathway. J Cell Sci 1 September 1996; 109 (9): 2331–2342. doi: https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.109.9.2331
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