The HIV-1 Rev protein localizes predominantly to the nucleolus of HIV-1-infected or Rev-expressing cells. The subcellular location of Rev during mitotic nucleolar disintegration was examined at various stages of mitosis in synchronized Rev-expressing CMT3 cells. During early prophase Rev was predominantly located in disintegrating nucleoli and began to accumulate at the peripheral regions of chromosomes in late prophase, eventually distributing uniformly on all chromosomes in prometaphase. In anaphase Rev remained associated with the perichromosomal regions, but significant amounts of Rev were also seen in numerous nucleolus-derived foci. The movement of Rev from disintegrating nucleoli to perichromosomal regions and foci was similar to that of nonribosomal nucleolar proteins, including fibrillarin, nucleolin, protein B23 and p52 of the granular component. During telophase Rev remained associated with perichromosomal regions and mitotic foci until the nuclear envelope started to reform. When nuclear envelope formation was complete in late telophase, nonribosomal nucleolar proteins were present in prenucleolar bodies (PNBs) which were eventually incorporated into nucleoli; at the same time, Rev was excluded from nuclei. In contrast, a trans-dominant negative Rev protein containing an inactive nuclear export signal reentered nuclei by the nonribosomal nucleolar protein pathway in late telophase, associating with PNBs and reformed nucleoli. Rev protein reentry into postmitotic nuclei was delayed until early G1 phase, but before the arrival of ribosomal protein S6. Thus, Rev behaves like a nonribosomal nucleolar protein through mitosis until early telophase; however, its nuclear reentry seems to require reestablishment of both a nuclear import system and active nucleoli.
Location of the HIV-1 Rev protein during mitosis: inactivation of the nuclear export signal alters the pathway for postmitotic reentry into nucleoli
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M. Dundr, G.H. Leno, N. Lewis, D. Rekosh, M.L. Hammarskjoid, M.O. Olson; Location of the HIV-1 Rev protein during mitosis: inactivation of the nuclear export signal alters the pathway for postmitotic reentry into nucleoli. J Cell Sci 1 September 1996; 109 (9): 2239–2251. doi: https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.109.9.2239
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