During mitosis in vertebrate somatic cells, the single attached kinetochore on a mono-oriented chromosome exhibits directional instability: abruptly and independently switching between constant velocity poleward and away from the pole motility states. When the non-attached sister becomes attached to the spindle (chromosome bi-orientation), the motility of the sister kinetochores becomes highly coordinated, one moving poleward while the other moves away from the pole, allowing chromosomes to congress to the spindle equator. In our kinetochore-tensiometer model, we hypothesized that this coordinated behavior is regulated by tension across the centromere produced by kinetochore movement relative to the sister kinetochore and bulk of the chromosome arms. To test this model, we severed or severely weakened the centromeric chromatin between sister kinetochores on bi-oriented newt lung cell chromosomes with a laser microbeam. This procedure converted a pair of tightly linked sister kinetochores into two mono-oriented single kinetochore-chromatin fragments that were tethered to their chromosome arms by thin compliant chromatin strands. These single kinetochore-chromatin fragments moved substantial distances off the metaphase plate, stretching their chromatin strands, before the durations of poleward and away from the pole movement again became similar. In contrast, the severed arms remained at or moved closer to the spindle equator. The poleward and away from the pole velocities of single kinetochore-chromatin fragments in prometaphase were typical of velocities exhibited by sister kinetochores on intact chromosomes from prometaphase through midanaphase A. However, severing the chromatin between sister kinetochores uncoupled the normally coordinated motility of sister kinetochores. Laser ablation also uncoupled the motilities of the single kinetochore fragments from the bulk of the arms. These results reveal that kinetochore directional instability is a fundamental property of the kinetochore and that the motilities of sister kinetochores are coordinated during congression by a stiff centromere linkage. We conclude that kinetochores act as tensiometers that sense centromere tension generated by differential movement of sister kinetochores and their chromosome arms to control switching between constant velocity P and AP motility states.
Kinetochore motility after severing between sister centromeres using laser microsurgery: evidence that kinetochore directional instability and position is regulated by tension
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R.V. Skibbens, C.L. Rieder, E.D. Salmon; Kinetochore motility after severing between sister centromeres using laser microsurgery: evidence that kinetochore directional instability and position is regulated by tension. J Cell Sci 1 July 1995; 108 (7): 2537–2548. doi: https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.108.7.2537
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