REFERENCES

Andres
J.
,
DeFalcis
D.
,
Noda
M.
,
Massague
J.
(
1992
).
Binding of two growth factor families to separate domains of the proteoglycan betaglycan.
J. Biol. Chem
267
,
5927
5930
Aviezer
D.
,
Levy
E.
,
Safran
M.
,
Svahn
C.
,
Buddecke
E.
,
Schmidt
A.
,
David
G.
,
Vlodavsky
I.
,
Yayon
A.
(
1994
).
Differential structural requirements of heparin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans that promote binding of basic fibroblast growth factor to its receptor.
J. Biol. Chem
269
,
114
121
Bernfield
M.
,
Kokenyesi
R.
,
Kato
M.
,
Hinkes
M. T.
,
Spring
J.
,
Gallo
R. L.
,
Lose
E. J.
(
1992
).
Biology of the syndecans.
Annu. Rev. Biochem
8
,
365
393
Bourin
M.-C.
,
Lungren-Åkerlund
E.
,
Lindahl
U.
(
1990
).
Isolation and characterization of the glycosaminoglycan component of rabbit thrombomodulin proteoglycan.
J. Biol. Chem
265
,
15424
15431
Brown
T.
,
Bouchard
T.
,
St. John
T.
,
Wayner
E.
,
Carter
W.
(
1991
).
Human keratinocytes express a new CD44 core protein (CD44E) as a heparan sulfate intrinsic membrane proteoglycan with additional exons.
J. Cell Biol
113
,
207
221
Busch
S. J.
,
Matin
G. A.
,
Barnhart
R. L.
,
Mano
M.
,
Cardin
A. D.
,
Jackson
R. L.
(
1992
).
Trans-repressor activity of nuclear glycosaminoglycans on fos and jun/AP-1 oncoprotein-mediated transcription.
J. Cell Biol
116
,
31
42
Carey
D. J.
,
Evans
D. M.
,
Stahl
R. C.
,
Asundi
V. K.
,
Conner
K. J.
,
Carbes
P.
,
Cizmeci-Smith
G.
(
1992
).
Molecular cloning and characterization of N -syndecan, a novel transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan.
J. Cell Biol
117
,
191
192
Carey
D. J.
,
Stahl
R. C.
,
Cizmeci-Smith
G.
,
Asundi
V. K.
(
1994
).
Syndecan-1 expressed in Schwann cells causes morphological transformation and cytoskeletal reorganization and associates with actin during cell spreading.
J. Cell Biol
124
,
161
170
Chernousov
M. A.
,
Carey
D. J.
(
1993
).
N-syndecan (syndecan-3) from neonatal rat brain binds basic fibroblast growth factor.
J. Biol. Chem
268
,
16810
16814
Chun
J.-S.
,
Bernfield
M.
(
1993
).
Syndecan-1 and integrin alfa5/beta1 appear to associate physically in the absence of their ligand fibronectin. Mol. Biol.
Cell
4
,
283
–.
Cizmeci-Smith
G.
,
Asundi
V.
,
Stahl
R. C.
,
Teichman
L. J.
,
Chernousov
M.
,
Cowan
K.
,
Carey
D. J.
(
1992
).
Regulated expression of syndecan in vascular smooth muscle cells and cloning of rat syndecan core protein cDNA.
J. Biol. Chem
267
,
15729
15736
Cizmeci-Smith
G.
,
Stahl
R. C.
,
Scowalter
L. J.
,
Carey
D. J.
(
1993
).
Differential expression of transmembrane proteoglycans in vascular smooth muscle cells.
J. Biol. Chem
268
,
18740
18747
David
G.
,
Lories
V.
,
Decock
B.
,
Marynen
P.
,
Cassiman
J.-J.
,
van den Berghe
H.
(
1990
).
Molecular cloning of a phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan from human lung fibroblasts.
J. Cell Biol
111
,
3165
3176
David
G.
,
van der Schueren
B.
,
Marynen
P.
,
Cassiman
J. J.
,
van den Berghe
H.
(
1992
).
Molecular cloning of amphiglycan, a novel integralmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed by epithelial and fibroblastic cells.
J. Cell Biol
118
,
961
969
Elenius
K.
,
Salmivirta
M.
,
Inki
P.
,
Mali
M.
,
Jalkanen
M.
(
1990
).
Binding of human syndecan to extracellular matrix proteins.
J. Biol. Chem
265
,
17837
17843
Elenius
K.
,
Vainio
S.
,
Laato
M.
,
Salmivirta
M.
,
Thesleff
I.
,
Jalkanen
M.
(
1991
).
Induced expression of syndecan in healing wounds.
J. Cell Biol
114
,
585
595
Elenius
K.
,
Määttä
A.
,
Salmivirta
M.
,
Jalkanen
M.
(
1992
).
Growth factors induce 3T3 cells to express bFGF-binding syndecan.
J. Biol. Chem
267
,
6435
6441
Erickson
H. P.
(
1993
).
Gene knockouts of c-src, transforming growth factor1 and tenascin suggest superfluous, nonfunctional expression of proteins.
J. Cell Biol
120
,
1079
1081
Flaumenhaft
R.
,
Moscatelli
D.
,
Rifkin
D.
(
1990
).
Heparin and heparan sulfate increase the radius of diffusion and action of basic fibroblast growth factor.
J. Cell Biol
111
,
1651
1659
Galione
A.
,
McDougall
A.
,
Busa
W. B.
,
Willmott
N.
,
Gillot
I.
,
Whitaker
M.
(
1993
).
Redundant mechanisms of calcium-induced calcium release underlying calcium waves during fertilization of sea urchin eggs.
Science
261
,
348
352
Gitay-Goren
H.
,
Soker
S.
,
Vlodavsky
I.
,
Neufeld
G.
(
1992
).
The binding of vascular endothelial growth factor to its receptors is dependent on cell surface-associated heparin-like molecules.
J. Biol. Chem
267
,
6093
6098
Gonzalez
A.-M.
,
Buscaglia
M.
,
Ong
M.
,
Baird
A.
(
1990
).
Distribution of basic fibroblast growth factor in the 18-day rat fetus: localization in the basement membranes of diverse tissues.
J. Cell Biol
110
,
753
765
Gould
S. E.
,
Upholt
W. B.
,
Kosher
R. A.
(
1992
).
Syndecan 3: A member of the syndecan family of membrane-intercalated proteoglycans that is expressed in high amounts at the onset of chicken limb cartilage differentiation.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA
89
,
3271
3275
Guimond
S.
,
Maccarana
M.
,
Olwin
B. B.
,
Lindahl
U.
,
Rapraeger
A. C.
(
1993
).
Activating and inhibitory heparin sequences for FGF-2 (basic FGF).
J. Biol. Chem
268
,
23906
23914
Habuchi
H.
,
Suzuki
S.
,
Saito
T.
,
Harada
T.
,
Yoshida
K.
,
Kimata
K.
(
1992
).
Structure of a heparan sulfate oligosaccharide that binds to basic fibroblast growth factor.
Biochem. J
285
,
805
813
Hayashi
K.
,
Hayashi
M.
,
Jalkanen
M.
,
Firestone
J. H.
,
Trelstad
R. L.
,
Bernfield
M.
(
1987
).
Immunocytochemistry of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan in mouse tissues. A light and electron microscopic study.
J. Histochem. Cytochem
35
,
1079
1088
Higashiyama
S.
,
Abraham
J. A.
,
Klagsbrun
M.
(
1993
).
Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor stimulation of smooth muscle cell migration: Dependence on interactions with cell surface heparan sulfate.
J. Cell Biol
122
,
933
940
Inki
P.
,
Stenbäck
F.
,
Talve
L.
,
Jalkanen
M.
(
1991
).
Immunohistochemical localization of syndecan in mouse skin tumors induced by UV irradiation.
Am. J. Pathol
139
,
1333
1340
Inki
P.
,
Gomez
M.
,
Quitanilla
M.
,
Cano
A.
,
Jalkanen
M.
(
1992
).
Expression of syndecan in transformed mouse keratinocytes.
Lab. Invest
62
,
225
233
Ishihara
M.
,
Tyrrell
D. J.
,
Stauber
G. B.
,
Brown
S.
,
Cousens
L. S.
,
Stack
R. J.
(
1993
).
Preparation of affinity-fractionated, heparin-derived oligosaccharides and their effects on selected biological activities mediated by basic fibroblast growth factor.
J. Biol. Chem
268
,
4675
4683
Jalkanen
M.
,
Rapraeger
A.
,
Saunders
S.
,
Bernfield
M.
(
1987
).
Cell surface proteoglycan from mouse mammary epithelial cells in shed by cleavage of its matrix-binding ectodomain from its membrane-associated domain.
J. Cell Biol
105
,
3087
3096
Kan
M.
,
Wang
F.
,
Xu
J.
,
Crabb
J. W.
,
Hou
J.
,
McKeehan
W. L.
(
1993
).
An essential heparin-binding domain in the fibroblast growth factor receptor kinase.
Science
259
,
1918
1921
Kiefer
M. C.
,
Stephans
J. C.
,
Crawford
K.
,
Okino
K.
,
Barr
P. J.
(
1990
).
Ligand-affinity cloning and structure of a cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan that binds basic fibroblast growth factor.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA
87
,
6985
6989
Kjellen
L.
,
Lindahl
U.
(
1991
).
Proteoglycans: structures and interactions.
Annu. Rev. Biochem
60
,
443
475
Klagsbrun
M.
(
1990
).
The affinity of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) forheparin; FGF-heparan sulfate interactions in cells and extracellular matrix.
Curr. Opin. Cell Biol
2
,
857
863
Koda
J. E.
,
Rapraeger
A.
,
Bernfield
M.
(
1985
).
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans from mouse mammary epithelial cells. Cell surface proteoglycan as a receptor for interstitial collagens.
J. Biol. Chem
260
,
8157
8162
Kojima
T.
,
Leone
C.
,
Marchildon
G.
,
Marcum
J.
,
Rosenberg
R.
(
1992
).
Isolation and characterization of heparan sulfate proteoglycans produced by cloned rat microvascular endothelial cells.
J. Biol. Chem
267
,
4859
4869
Kojima
T.
,
Shworak
N. W.
,
Rosenberg
R. D.
(
1992
).
Molecular cloning and expression of two distinct cDNA-encoding heparan sulfate proteoglycan core proteins from a rat endothelial cell line.
J. Biol. Chem
267
,
4870
4877
Kokenyesi
R.
,
Bernfield
M.
(
1994
).
Core protein structure and sequence determine the site and presence of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate on syndecan-1.
J. Biol. Chem
269
,
12304
12309
LeBaron
R. G.
,
Esko
J. D.
,
Woods
A.
,
Johansson
S.
,
Höök
M.
(
1988
).
Adhesion of glycosaminoglycan-deficient chinese hamster ovary cell mutants to fibronectin substrata.
J. Cell Biol
106
,
945
952
Leppä
S.
,
Härkönen
P.
,
Jalkanen
M.
(
1991
).
Steroid induced epithelial-fibroblastic conversion associated with syndecan suppression in S115 mouse mammary tumor cells.
Cell Reg
2
,
1
11
Leppä
S.
,
Mali
M.
,
Miettinen
H.
,
Jalkanen
M.
(
1992
).
Syndecan expression regulates cell morphology and growth of mouse mammary epithelial tumor cells.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA
89
,
932
936
Lindahl
U.
,
Thunberg
G.
,
Bäckström
G.
,
Riesenfeld
J.
,
Nordling
K.
,
Björk
I.
(
1984
).
Extension and structural variability of the antithrombin-binding sequence in heparin.
J. Biol. Chem
259
,
12368
12376
Lopez-Casillas
F.
,
Payne
H. M.
,
Andres
J. L.
,
Massague
J.
(
1994
).
Betaglycan can act as a dual modulator of TGF-access to signaling receptors: Mapping of ligand binding and GAG attachment sites.
J. Cell Biol
124
,
557
568
Lories
V.
,
Cassiman
J. J.
,
Van der Berghe
H.
,
David
G.
(
1992
).
Differential expression of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans in human mammary epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts.
J. Biol. Chem
267
,
1116
1122
Maccarana
M.
,
Casu
B.
,
Lindahl
U.
(
1993
).
Minimal sequence in heparin/heparan sulfate required for binding of basic fibroblast growth factor.
J. Biol. Chem
268
,
23898
23905
Mach
H.
,
Volkin
D. B.
,
Burke
C. J.
,
Middaugh
C. R.
,
Linhardt
R. J.
,
Fromm
J. R.
,
Loganathan
D.
,
Mattsson
L.
(
1993
).
Nature of the interaction of heparin with acidic fibroblast growth factor.
Biochemistry
32
,
5480
5489
Mali
M.
,
Elenius
K.
,
Miettinen
H.
,
Jalkanen
M.
(
1993
).
Inhibition of basic fibroblast growth factor-induced growth promotion by overexpression of syndecan-1.
J. Biol. Chem
268
,
24215
24222
Mansukhani
A.
,
Dell'Era
P.
,
Moscatelli
D.
,
Kornbluth
S.
,
Hanfusa
H.
,
Basilico
A.
(
1992
).
Characterization of the murine BEK fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor: Activation by three members of the FGF family and requirement for heparin.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA
89
,
3305
3309
Marynen
P.
,
Zhang
J.
,
Cassiman
J.-J.
,
Van der Berghe
H.
,
David
G.
(
1989
).
Partial primary structure of the 48-and 90-kilodalton core proteins of cell surface-associated heparan proteoglycans of lung fibroblasts.
J. Biol. Chem
264
,
7017
7024
Mertens
G.
,
Cassiman
J.-J.
,
Van den Berghe
H.
,
Vermylen
J.
,
Guido
D.
(
1992
).
Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans from human vascular endothelial cells. Core protein characterization and antithrombin III binding properties.
J. Biol. Chem
267
,
20435
20443
Miller
J.
,
Hatch
J.
,
Simonis
S.
,
Cullen
S.
(
1988
).
Identification of the glycosaminoglycan-attachment site of mouse invariant-chain proteoglycan core protein by site directed mutagenesis.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA
85
,
1359
1363
Nishiyama
A.
,
Dahlin
K.
,
Prince
J.
,
Johnstone
S.
,
Stallcup
W.
(
1991
).
The primary structure of NG2, a novel membrane spanning proteoglycan.
J. Cell Biol
114
,
359
371
Nugent
M.
,
Edelman
E.
(
1992
).
Kinetics of basic fibroblast growth factor binding to its receptor and heparan sulfate proteoglycan: a mechanism for cooperativity.
Biochemistry
31
,
8876
8883
Nurcombe
V.
,
Ford
M. D.
,
Wildschut
J. A.
,
Bartlett
P. F.
(
1993
).
Developmental regulation of neural response to FGF-1 and FGF-2 by heparan sulfate proteoglycan.
Science
260
,
103
106
Olwin
B.
,
Rapraeger
A.
(
1992
).
Repression of myogenic differentiation by aFGF, bFGF and K-FGF is dependent on cellular heparan sulfate.
J. Cell Biol
118
,
621
639
Ornitz
D.
,
Yayon
A.
,
Flanagan
J.
,
Scahn
C.
,
Levi
E.
,
Leder
P.
(
1992
).
Heparin is required for cell-free binding of basic fibroblast growth factor to a soluble receptor and for mitogenesis in whole cells.
Mol. Cell Biol
12
,
240
247
Price
L.
,
Choi
H.
,
Rosenberg
L.
,
Stanley
E.
(
1992
).
The predominant form of secreted colony stimulating factor is a proteoglycan.
J. Biol. Chem
267
,
2190
2199
Rapraeger
A.
,
Jalkanen
M.
,
Bernfield
M.
(
1986
).
Cell surface proteoglycan associates with the cytoskeleton at the basolateral cell surface of mouse mammary epithelial cells.
J. Cell Biol
103
,
2683
2696
Rapraeger
A.
(
1989
).
Transforming growth factor (typepromotes the addition of chondroitin sulfate chains to the cell surface proteoglycan (syndecan) of mouse mammary epithelia.
J. Cell Biol
109
,
2509
2518
Rapraeger
A. C.
,
Krufka
A.
,
Olwin
B.
(
1991
).
Requirement of heparan sulfate for bFGF-mediated fibroblast growth and myogenic differentiation.
Science
252
,
1705
1708
Reiland
J.
,
Rapraeger
A. C.
(
1993
).
Heparan sulfate proteoglycan and FGF receptor target FGF-2 to different intracellular destinations.
J. Cell Sci
105
,
1085
1093
Saksela
O.
,
Moscatelli
D.
,
Sommer
A.
,
Rifkin
D.
(
1988
).
Endothelial cell-derived heparan sulfate binds basic fibroblast growth factor and protects it from proteolytic degradation.
J. Cell Biol
107
,
743
751
Salmivirta
M.
,
Elenius
K.
,
Vainio
S.
,
Hofer
U.
,
Chiquet-Ehrismann
R.
,
Thesleff
I.
,
Jalkanen
M.
(
1991
).
Syndecan from embryonic tooth mesenchyme binds tenascin.
J. Biol. Chem
266
,
7733
7739
Salmivirta
M.
,
Heino
J.
,
Jalkanen
M.
(
1992
).
Basic fibroblast growth factor-syndecan complex at cell surface or immobilized to matrix proteins promotes cell growth.
J. Biol. Chem
267
,
17606
17610
Sanderson
R. D.
,
Bernfield
M.
(
1988
).
Molecular polymorphism of a cell surface proteoglycan: Distinct structures on simple and stratified epithelia.
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA
85
,
9562
9566
Sanderson
R. D.
,
Lalor
P.
,
Bernfield
M.
(
1989
).
B lymphocytes express and lose syndecan at specific stages of differentiation.
Cell Regul
1
,
27
35
Sanderson
R. D.
,
Hinkes
M. T.
,
Bernfield
M.
(
1992
).
Syndecan-1, a cell surface proteoglycan, changes in size and abundance when keratinocytes stratify.
J. Invest. Dermatol
99
,
390
396
Sanderson
R. D.
,
Turnbull
J. E.
,
Gallagher
J. T.
,
Lander
A. D.
(
1994
).
Fine structure of heparan sulfate regulates syndecan-1 function and cell behavior.
J. Biol. Chem
269
,
1310
13106
Saunders
S.
,
Bernfield
M.
(
1988
).
Cell surface proteoglycan binds mouse mammary epithelial cells to fibronectin and behaves as a receptor on interstitial matrix.
J. Cell Biol
106
,
423
430
Saunders
S.
,
Jalkanen
M.
,
O'Farrel
S.
,
Bernfield
M.
(
1989
).
Molecular cloning of syndecan, an integral membrane proteoglycan.
J. Cell Biol
108
,
1547
1565
Shieh
M.-T.
,
Wudunn
D.
,
Montgomery
R. I.
,
Esko
J. D.
,
Spear
P. G.
(
1992
).
Cell surface receptors for herpes simplex virus are heparan sulfate proteoglycans.
J. Cell Biol
116
,
1273
1281
Sneed
T. B.
,
Stanley
D. J.
,
Young
L. A.
,
Sanderson
R. D.
(
1994
).
Interleukin-6 regulates expression of the syndecan-1 proteoglycan on B lymphoid cells.
Cell. Immunol
153
,
456
467
Stipp
C. S.
,
Litwack
E. D.
,
Lander
A. D.
(
1994
).
Cerebroglycan: an integral membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is unique to the developing nervous system and expressed specifically during neuronal differentiation.
J. Cell Biol
124
,
149
160
Sun
X.
,
Mosher
D. F.
,
Rapraeger
A.
(
1989
).
Heparan sulfate-mediated binding of epithelial cell surface proteoglycan to thrombospondin.
J. Biol. Chem
264
,
2885
2889
Sutherland
A. E.
,
Sanderson
R. D.
,
Mayes
M.
,
Seibert
M.
,
Calaarco
P. G.
,
Bernfield
M.
,
Damsky
C.
(
1991
).
Expression of syndecan, a putative low affinity fibroblast growth factor receptor, in the early mouse embryo.
Development
113
,
339
351
Thesleff
I.
,
Jalkanen
M.
,
Vainio
S.
,
Bernfield
M.
(
1988
).
Cell surface proteoglycan expression correlates with epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during tooth morphogenesis.
Dev. Biol
129
,
565
572
Tyrrell
D. J.
,
Ishihara
M.
,
Rao
N.
,
Horne
A.
,
Kiefer
M. C.
,
Stauber
G. B.
,
Lam
L. H.
,
Stack
R. J.
(
1993
).
Structure and biological activities of a heparin-derived hexasaccharide with high affinity for basic fibroblast growth factor.
J. Biol. Chem
268
,
4684
4689
Vainio
S.
,
Thesleff
I.
(
1992
).
Coordinated induction of cell proliferation and syndecan expression in dental mesenchyme by epithelium: evidence for diffusible signals.
Dev. Dynam
194
,
105
117
Wilkinson
D.
,
Bhatt
S.
,
McMahon
A.
(
1989
).
Expression pattern of the FGF-related proto-oncogene int-2 suggests multiple roles in fetal development.
Development
105
,
131
136
Woods
A.
,
Couchman
J. R.
(
1994
).
Syndecan 4 heparan sulfate proteoglycan is a selectively enriched and widespread focal adhesion component. Mol. Biol.
Cell
5
,
183
192
Woods
A.
,
Couchman
J. R.
,
Johansson
S.
,
Hook
M.
(
1986
).
Adhesion and cytoskeletal organization of fibroblasts in response to fibronectin fragments.
EMBO J
5
,
665
670
Yamaguchi
Y.
,
Mann
D.
,
Ruoslahti
E.
(
1990
).
Negative regulation of transforming growth factor-beta by the proteoglycan decorin.
Nature
346
,
281
284
Yayon
A.
,
Klagsbrun
M.
,
Esko
J. D.
,
Leder
P.
,
Ornitz
D. M.
(
1991
).
Cell surface, heparin-like molecules are required for biding of basic fibroblast growth factor to its high affinity receptor.
Cell
64
,
841
848
This content is only available via PDF.

Article PDF first page preview

Article PDF first page preview