Desmosomal junctions are abundant in epidermis and contain two classes of transmembrane glycoprotein, the desmocollins and the desmogleins, which are members of the cadherin superfamily of Ca(2+)-dependent cell adhesion molecules. The desmocollin subfamily includes DGIV/V and DGII/III while the desmoglein subfamily includes DGI, HDGC and the autoantigen of the blistering skin disease pemphigus vulgaris (PVA). There are also several non-glycosylated proteins, including the desmoplakins and plakoglobin, present in the desmosomal plaque, which forms a link between the glycoproteins and the cytokeratin intermediate filaments. To provide a picture of the expression of the desmosomal genes and their products in epidermis, we have used in situ hybridisation and immunofluorescence staining on sections of human foreskin. We find that, as expected, desmoplakin DPI/II and plakoglobin are expressed throughout the epidermis, gradually accumulating during differentiation, which probably reflects the increased numbers of desmosomes. In contrast, while keratin 14 and the hemidesmosomal component bullous pemphigoid antigen I (BPAGI) are basal-specific, desmocollin DGIV/V is expressed only in the upper spinous/granular layers of the epidermis, whereas DGII/III expression is enriched in the basal layers. Amongst the desmogleins, expression of DGI appears similar to desmoplakin and plakoglobin; PVA is more prevalent in the lower spinous layers, whereas HDGC expression is detected basally but not suprabasally. The major desmosomal cadherin transcripts are desmocollin DGIV/V and desmoglein DGI. The resultant changes in desmosomal composition and structure may reflect the maturation of desmosomes, presumably being related to the need for changes in cell adhesion during stratification, terminal differentiation, and desquamation, and point to the desmosome being a key player in epidermal differentiation.
Stratification-related expression of isoforms of the desmosomal cadherins in human epidermis
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J. Arnemann, K.H. Sullivan, A.I. Magee, I.A. King, R.S. Buxton; Stratification-related expression of isoforms of the desmosomal cadherins in human epidermis. J Cell Sci 1 March 1993; 104 (3): 741–750. doi: https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.104.3.741
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