The temporal and spatial progression of DNA replication in interphase nuclei of eukaryotic cells has been investigated. Application of a recently developed technique for the immunofluorescence double staining of cell nuclei labelled first with iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) and subsequently with chlorodeoxyuridine (CldUrd) allows the visualization of two replication patterns in the same nucleus originating from two different periods of the S-phase. We have analysed changes in the three-dimensional replication patterns during the S-phase. To record dual colour three-dimensional images of doubly stained nuclei, a confocal microscope is used. This CSLM is equipped with a specific laser/filter combination to collect both fluorescence signals (FITC and Texas Red) in a single scan, thus precluding pixel shift between the images. A method for the quantitative evaluation of the degree of overlap between DNA regions replicated in two different periods of the S-phase is applied. The results confirm the generally accepted theory that DNA is replicated coordinately in a specific temporal order during the S-phase. The replication time of a DNA domain (i.e. the time between initiation and termination of DNA replication within a domain) at the very beginning of the S-phase was known to be one hour (Nakamura et al., 1986). Our observations show that in the rest of the S-phase, the replication time of a DNA region is also about one hour. We conclude that replicon clusters located in the same region are replicated in the same relatively short period of time. After this period there is no unreplicated DNA left in this region.
Dynamics of three-dimensional replication patterns during the S-phase, analysed by double labelling of DNA and confocal microscopy
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E.M. Manders, J. Stap, G.J. Brakenhoff, R. van Driel, J.A. Aten; Dynamics of three-dimensional replication patterns during the S-phase, analysed by double labelling of DNA and confocal microscopy. J Cell Sci 1 November 1992; 103 (3): 857–862. doi: https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.103.3.857
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