Co-localization of the elements calcium, potassium, sodium and magnesium with sequestering organelles has been achieved by application of two microscopy techniques on the same cell. Organelles were first localized by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCFM) using fluorescent organelle stains. The same cells were then analyzed for elemental distribution with ion microscopy. This approach has identified a perinuclear region of prominent total calcium concentration with the Golgi apparatus. Live cells were fluorescently stained with C6-NBD-ceramide for labeling the Golgi apparatus prior to cryogenic preparation and freeze-drying, and imaged with LSCFM for Golgi localization; identical cells were then analyzed with ion microscopy to image subcellular distributions of total calcium, potassium, sodium and magnesium. In three cell lines, LLC-PK1 porcine kidney epithelial cells, Swiss 3T3 mouse fibroblast cells and L5 rat myoblast cells, the Golgi regions contained significantly higher total calcium concentrations than any other region of the cell (as measured at the spatial resolution of ion microscopy of about 0.5 micron). Intracellular potassium, sodium and magnesium were homogeneously distributed throughout the cell and did not show this pattern. Measurements of depletion of calcium by exposure to calcium-free medium showed that the Golgi apparatus was substantially more resistant to calcium depletion than all other regions of these cells, but sequestered Ca2+ could be released from the Golgi by exposing the cells to calcium ionophore A23187. The Golgi apparatus appears to sequester about 5% of the total cell calcium in LLC-PK1 cells, about 2.5% in 3T3 cells and L5 cells.

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