Anilocra mediterranea has a diploid chromosome number of twelve, eight of the chromosomes having median, and four subterminal centromeres.

The localization of chiasmata is extreme and is of a previously undescribed type, combining the terminal and centric systems.

The centromeres stain differentially from the non-centric regions of the chromosomes; they are the only parts stained at anaphase of first meiosis, and at metaphase and anaphase of second meiosis.

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