Having examined with some minuteness the fossil Diatoms in the Mull earth and in the Glenshira sand, both of which deposits yielded a very large number of species, I felt desirous to compare with them the species at present living in our waters. Accordingly I obtained, from various friends, gatherings from a great many different localities, both in England and in Scotland. Those which I have been able to study with some care, up to the present time, are almost all from fresh water, and, postponing to a future opportunity an account of the marine gatherings, I propose now very briefly to notice the results obtained from a number of fresh-water gatherings, more especially with reference to such species as are either altogether new or new to Britain.

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