Amyloid β (Aβ) is a central contributor to neuronal damage and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ disrupts AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic plasticity, a key factor in early AD progression. Numerous studies propose that Aβ oligomers hinder synaptic plasticity, particularly long-term potentiation (LTP), by disrupting GluA1 (encoded by GRIA1) function, although the precise mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that Aβ mediates the accumulation of GM1 ganglioside in lipid raft domains of cultured cells, and GluA1 exhibits preferential localization in lipid rafts via direct binding to GM1. Aβ enhances the raft localization of GluA1 by increasing GM1 in these areas. Additionally, chemical LTP stimulation induces lipid raft-dependent GluA1 internalization in Aβ-treated neurons, resulting in reduced cell surface and postsynaptic expression of GluA1. Consistent with this, disrupting lipid rafts and GluA1 localization in rafts rescues Aβ-mediated suppression of hippocampal LTP. These findings unveil a novel functional deficit in GluA1 trafficking induced by Aβ, providing new insights into the mechanism underlying AD-associated cognitive dysfunction.

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