Biogenesis of inclusion bodies (IBs) facilitates protein quality control (PQC). Canonical aggresomes execute degradation of misfolded proteins while non-degradable amyloids sequester into insoluble protein deposits. Lewy bodies (LBs) are filamentous amyloid inclusions of α-synuclein, but PQC benefits and drawbacks associated with LB-like IBs remain underexplored. Here, we report that crosstalk between filamentous LB-like IBs and aggresome-like IBs of α-synuclein (Syn-aggresomes) buffer the load, aggregation state, and turnover of the amyloidogenic protein in mouse primary neurons and HEK293T cells. Filamentous LB-like IBs possess unorthodox PQC capacities of self-quarantining α-synuclein amyloids and being degradable upon receding fresh amyloidogenesis. Syn-aggresomes equilibrate biogenesis of filamentous LB-like IBs by facilitating spontaneous degradation of α-synuclein and conditional turnover of disintegrated α-synuclein amyloids. Thus, both types of IB primarily contribute to PQC. Incidentally, the overgrown perinuclear LB-like IBs become degenerative once these are misidentified by BICD2, a cargo-adapter for the cytosolic motor-protein dynein. Microscopy indicates that microtubules surrounding the perinuclear filamentous inclusions are also distorted, misbalancing the cytoskeleton-nucleoskeleton tension leading to widespread lamina injuries. Together, nucleocytoplasmic mixing, DNA damage, and deregulated transcription of stress chaperones defeat the proteostatic purposes of the filamentous amyloids of α-synuclein.

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