Hepatocyte organoids (HOs) generated in vitro are powerful tools for liver regeneration. However, previously reported HOs have mostly been fetal in nature with low expression levels of metabolic genes characteristic of adult liver functions, hampering their application in studies of metabolic regulation and therapeutic testing for liver disorders. Here, we report development of novel culture conditions that combine optimized levels of triiodothyronine (T3) with the removal of growth factors to enable successful generation of mature hepatocyte organoids (MHOs) of both mouse and human origin with metabolic functions characteristic of adult livers. We show that the MHOs can be used to study various metabolic functions including bile and urea production, zonal metabolic gene expression, and metabolic alterations in both alcoholic liver disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as well as hepatocyte proliferation, injury and cell fate changes. Notably, MHOs derived from human fetal hepatocytes also show improved hepatitis B virus infection. Therefore, these MHOs provide a powerful in vitro model for studies of human liver physiology and diseases. The human MHOs are potentially also a robust research tool for therapeutic development.

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