Rho GTPases, among them Rac1 and Rac3, are major transducers of extracellular signals and are involved in multiple cellular processes. In cortical interneurons, the neurons that control the balance between excitation and inhibition of cortical circuits, Rac1 and Rac3 are essential for their development. Ablation of both leads to a severe reduction in the numbers of mature interneurons found in the murine cortex, which is partially due to abnormal cell cycle progression of interneuron precursors and defective formation of growth cones in young neurons. Here, we present new evidence that upon Rac1 and Rac3 ablation, centrosome, Golgi complex and lysosome positioning is significantly perturbed, thus affecting both interneuron migration and axon growth. Moreover, for the first time, we provide evidence of altered expression and localization of the two-pore channel 2 (TPC2) voltage-gated ion channel that mediates Ca2+ release. Pharmacological inhibition of TPC2 negatively affected axonal growth and migration of interneurons. Our data, taken together, suggest that TPC2 contributes to the severe phenotype in axon growth initiation, extension and interneuron migration in the absence of Rac1 and Rac3.

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