Cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP) is a ubiquitous important second messenger involved in various physiological functions. Here, intracellular cGMP (cGMPi) was visualized in chemotactic Dictyostelium cells using the fluorescent probe, D-Green cGull. When wild-type cells were stimulated with a chemoattractant, fluorescence transiently increased, but guanylate cyclase-null cells did not show a change in fluorescence, suggesting that D-Green cGull is a reliable indicator of cGMPi. In the aggregation stage, the responses of cGMPi propagated in a wave-like fashion from the aggregation center. The oscillation of the cGMPi wave was synchronized almost in phase with those of other second messengers, such as the intracellular cAMP and Ca2+. The phases of these waves preceded those of the oscillations of actomyosin and cell velocity, suggesting that these second messengers are upstream of the actomyosin and chemotactic migration. An acute increase in cGMPi concentration released from membrane-permeable caged cGMP induced a transient shuttle of myosin II between the cytosol and cell cortex, suggesting a direct link between cGMP signaling and myosin II dynamics.

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