Emergent cell behaviors that drive tissue morphogenesis are the integrated product of instructions from gene regulatory networks, mechanics and signals from the local tissue microenvironment. How these discrete inputs intersect to coordinate diverse morphogenic events is a critical area of interest. Organ-on-chip technology has revolutionized the ability to construct and manipulate miniaturized human tissues with organotypic three-dimensional architectures in vitro. Applications of organ-on-chip platforms have increasingly transitioned from proof-of-concept tissue engineering to discovery biology, furthering our understanding of molecular and mechanical mechanisms that operate across biological scales to orchestrate tissue morphogenesis. Here, we provide the biological framework to harness organ-on-chip systems to study tissue morphogenesis, and we highlight recent examples where organ-on-chips and associated microphysiological systems have enabled new mechanistic insight in diverse morphogenic settings. We further highlight the use of organ-on-chip platforms as emerging test beds for cell and developmental biology.