The intestine, a rapidly self-renewing organ, is part of the gastrointestinal system. Its major roles are to absorb food-derived nutrients and water, process waste and act as a barrier against potentially harmful substances. Here, we will give a brief overview of the primary functions of the intestine, its structure and the luminal gradients along its length. We will discuss the dynamics of the intestinal epithelium, its turnover, and the maintenance of homeostasis. Finally, we will focus on the characteristics and functions of intestinal mesenchymal and immune cells. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we aim to present the most recent information about gut cell biology and physiology, providing a resource for further exploration.

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