Selectins and integrins are key players in the adhesion and signaling cascade that recruits leukocytes to inflamed tissues. Selectin binding induces β2 integrin binding to slow leukocyte rolling. Here, a micropipette was used to characterize neutrophil adhesion to E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) at room temperature. The time-dependent adhesion frequency displayed two-stage kinetics, with an E-selectin-mediated fast increase to a low plateau followed by a slow increase to a high plateau mediated by intermediate-affinity binding of integrin αLβ2 to ICAM-1. The αLβ2 activation required more than 5 s contact to E-selectin and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) activity. A multi-zone channel was used to analyze αLβ2 activation by P-selectin in separate zones of receptors or antibodies, finding an inverse relationship between the rolling velocity on ICAM-1 and P-selectin dose, and a P-selectin dose-dependent change from bent to extended conformations with a closed headpiece that was faster at 37°C than at room temperature. Activation of αLβ2 exhibited different levels of cooperativity and persistent times depending on the strength and duration of selectin stimulation. These results define the precise timing and kinetics of intermediate activation of αLβ2 by E- and P-selectins.

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