ABSTRACT

The receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase 2 (RIPK2) is essential for signal transduction induced by the pattern recognition receptors NOD1 and NOD2 (referred to collectively as NOD1/2). Upon NOD1/2 activation, RIPK2 forms complexes in the cytoplasm of human cells. Here, we identified the molecular composition of these complexes. Infection with Shigella flexneri to activate NOD1–RIPK2 revealed that RIPK2 formed dynamic interactions with several cellular proteins, including A20 (also known as TNFAIP3), erlin-1, erlin-2 and 14-3-3. Whereas interaction of RIPK2 with 14-3-3 proteins was strongly reduced upon infection with Shigella, erlin-1 and erlin-2 (erlin-1/2) specifically bound to RIPK2 complexes. The interaction of these proteins with RIPK2 was validated using protein binding assays and immunofluorescence staining. Beside bacterial activation of NOD1/2, depletion of the E3 ubiquitin ligase XIAP and treatment with RIPK2 inhibitors also led to the formation of RIPK2 cytosolic complexes. Although erlin-1/2 were recruited to RIPK2 complexes following XIAP inhibition, these proteins did not associate with RIPK2 structures induced by RIPK2 inhibitors. While the specific recruitment of erlin-1/2 to RIPK2 suggests a role in innate immune signaling, the biological response regulated by the erlin-1/2–RIPK2 association remains to be determined.

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