IN THIS ISSUE
Summary: Developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in the Ras-MAPK pathway are called RASopathies. Studies with animal models, including mice, zebrafish and Drosophila, continue to enhance our understanding of these diseases.
A state of reversible compensated ventricular dysfunction precedes pathological remodelling in response to cardiomyocyte-specific activity of angiotensin II type-1 receptor in mice
Highlighted Article: A novel conditional mouse model was used to investigate early initiating stages of heart disease that are commonly overlooked, and identifies a ‘window of opportunity’ for personalised therapeutic intervention.
Tomoregulin-1 prevents cardiac hypertrophy after pressure overload in mice by inhibiting TAK1-JNK pathways
Summary: Tomoregulin-1 is primarily involved in embryonic development and adult CNS function. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study about the function of tomoregulin-1 on cardiac hypertrophy in mice.
Glycoprotein A33 deficiency: a new mouse model of impaired intestinal epithelial barrier function and inflammatory disease
Highlighted Article: We show that GPA33, an intestine-specific cell surface protein, plays a role in the maintenance of intestinal barrier function and the prevention of intestinal pathologies such as food hypersensitivity, inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated cancer.
Optineurin deficiency in mice contributes to impaired cytokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment in bacteria-driven colitis
Summary: Optineurin plays a role in acute inflammation, proinflammatory cytokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment, which suggests that diminished optineurin expression in humans might increase the risk of developing Crohn's disease.
A natural human IgM that binds to gangliosides is therapeutic in murine models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Summary: A single peripheral dose of a recombinant natural human IgM increases lifespan and delays neurological deficits in mouse models of human ALS.
A Drosophila model for mito-nuclear diseases generated by an incompatible interaction between tRNA and tRNA synthetase
Summary: Interacting mutations in a mitochondrially encoded tRNA and nuclear-encoded tRNA synthetase result in a suite of pathologies, including altered locomotor capacity, mitochondrial function and morphology, and mitochondrial translation.
Using the avian mutant talpid2 as a disease model for understanding the oral-facial phenotypes of oral-facial-digital syndrome
Summary: This study utilizes a naturally occurring avian mutant known as talpid2 to determine the cellular basis for the oral-facial phenotypes present in oral-facial-digital syndrome.
MicroRNA-16 suppresses metastasis in an orthotopic, but not autochthonous, mouse model of soft tissue sarcoma
Summary: This work underscores the importance of studying cancer metastasis using in vivo model systems in addition to in vitro and transplant model systems.
Enolase 1 (ENO1) and protein disulfide-isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3) regulate Wnt/β-catenin-driven trans-differentiation of murine alveolar epithelial cells
Summary: The authors identified proteins involved in Wnt/β-catenin-driven alveolar epithelial plasticity in lung injury and repair.
Summary: In the fission yeast S. pombe, kidney disease-associated mutations in Myo1, a homolog of human Myo1e, disrupt myosin localization and function.
Summary: The comparison of different nephron-specific Wt1-knockout mouse models identifies the stage of origin of human WT1-mutant Wilms' tumours.
Summary: Targeting lymphangiogenesis, inflammation or fibrosis separately in a rat model of proteinuric nephropathy showed that treating any of these changes alone is not effective in treating the disease.
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition attenuates fibroblast activation and development of fibrosis following renal ischemia-reperfusion in mice
Summary: GSK3 promotes renal fibrosis by activation of TGF-β signaling, and the use of GSK3 inhibitors might represent a novel therapeutic approach for progressive renal fibrosis that develops as a consequence of acute kidney injury.
Variations in dysfunction of sister chromatid cohesion in esco2 mutant zebrafish reflect the phenotypic diversity of Roberts syndrome
Summary: In vivo analysis of zebrafish esco2 mutants reveals extensive genomic instability and activation of DNA-damage-response pathways, although some cells have compensatory cohesion and divide normally.
Summary: Mice lacking Sun proteins serve as a working model to study SYNE1-associated cerebellar ataxia; they will also be useful in identifying therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases involving Purkinje cell loss.
Summary: We characterized Bst+/− mice and found that pupillary light reflex was completely absent, which could be used as a readout for the efficacy of stem cell therapy in this model.
Summary: This study provides the first evidence that EMB induces autophagosome accumulation, which results from the impaired autophagic flux that is mediated by a PKCδ-dependent pathway, and leads to apoptotic death in retina neuronal cells.
Highlighted Article: Apoc2 loss-of-function zebrafish display severe hypertriglyceridemia, which is characteristic of human patients with defective lipoprotein lipase activity.
Summary: Phospholamban overexpression in mouse slow-twitch muscle impairs SERCA function and causes histopathological features associated with human centronuclear myopathy.