Much effort has been invested in determining how Salmonella virulence factors cause acute gastroenteritis. There has been debate about whether and how the Salmonella enterotoxin Stn contributes to the virulence of the bacteria. Nakano et al. find that a Δstn strain is no less virulent in vitro or in vivo than wild type. However, proteomic profiling shows that Δstn has abnormal membrane localisation of OmpA, a highly immunogenic outer membrane protein that is important for bacterial homeostasis. In addition, Stn and OmpA are found to directly interact. Thus, Stn might be important for bacterial cell membrane integrity through regulating the localisation of OmpA. Page 515

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