Endometriosis can cause pain, infertility and ovarian epithelial tumors. Raluca Budiu and colleagues describe a double transgenic MUC1Kras mouse with inducible endometriosis. The expression of MUC1 increases in the ovaries as lesions appear. They suggest that the strong antibody response generated against MUC1 may promote tolerance to the antigen, leading to a reduction in immune competence that enables cancer progression. MUC1Kras mice could provide an in vivo platform for testing anti-MUC1 vaccines to treat endometriosis and prevent ovarian cancer.

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