The new NIH Transformative R01 (T-R01) program, announced in September 2008, will specifically fund high-risk research in areas that are in need of radical change and progress such as pharmacogenomics, understanding and facilitating behavioral changes for disease intervention, mitochondrial variation, and dysfunction and chronic pain management. The applications for the 5-year grants are due by 29 January 2009. The grant proposals, which are unique from traditional R01 grading systems, will be evaluated by a distinctive review process being piloted by the NIH Center for Scientific Review (CSR). This new research support and review program aims to stimulate scientific creativity and unique approaches, which will hopefully lead to high-impact discoveries and breakthroughs. Further information on this program can be found online at: