We isolated three alleles of an Arabidopsis thaliana gene named ROXY1 , which initiates a reduced number of petal primordia and exhibits abnormalities during further petal development. The defects are restricted to the second whorl of the flower and independent of organ identity. ROXY1 belongs to a subgroup of glutaredoxins that are specific for higher plants and we present data on the first characterization of a mutant from this large Arabidopsis gene family for which information is scarce. ROXY1 is predominantly expressed in tissues that give rise to new flower primordia, including petal precursor cells and petal primordia. Occasionally, filamentous organs with stigmatic structures are formed in the second whorl of the roxy1 mutant, indicative for an ectopic function of the class C gene AGAMOUS ( AG ). The function of ROXY1 in the negative regulation of AG is corroborated by premature and ectopic AG expression in roxy1-3 ap1-10 double mutants, as well as by enhanced first whorl carpeloidy in double mutants of roxy1 with repressors of AG, such as ap2 or lug. Glutaredoxins are oxidoreductases that oxidize or reduce conserved cysteine-containing motifs. Mutagenesis of conserved cysteines within the ROXY1 protein demonstrates the importance of cysteine 49 for its function. Our data demonstrate that, unexpectedly, a plant glutaredoxin is involved in flower development, probably by mediating post-translational modifications of target proteins required for normal petal organ initiation and morphogenesis.