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Special Issue: The Immune System in Development and Regeneration



Summary: Intestinal organoid co-cultures with immune cells are meeting their potential as a robust tool for modelling the bi-directional interactions between epithelial and immune cells in mediating development and regeneration.

Summary: This Spotlight discusses non-traditional roles of immune and non-immune-like cells, and their interactions with other cells to carry out functions during tissue repair and homeostasis.


Summary: This Development at a Glance article gives an overview of the ontogeny, maintenance and unique tissue adaptions of macrophages, and highlights their role in development, homeostasis and dysfunction.


Summary: This Meeting Review summarizes the recent findings presented at the recent symposium ‘Stem Cells & the Immune System: At the Crossroads of Regeneration’ held on 3rd November 2021.


Summary: This Review summarizes the crucial role of microglia – brain-specific, yolk sac-derived macrophages – in neural development, highlighting temporal and spatial heterogeneity in their interactions with neuronal and non-neuronal cells to support brain development and regeneration.

Summary: This Review summarizes recent developments in our understanding of the embryonic origin of osteoclasts and their interactions with the immune environment, highlighting their role in the regulation of normal and pathological bone development, homeostasis and repair.

Summary: This Review summarises the array of signals that influence regenerative neurogenesis in the central nervous system of zebrafish, indicating possible avenues for activation of similar signalling pathways in non-regenerating mammals.

Summary: This Review presents the innate and adaptive immune responses to heart injury in regenerative and non-regenerative organisms to uncover an immune response permissible for cardiac regeneration.


Summary: Generation of intra-embryonic-like and extra-embryonic-like macrophages from human pluripotent stem cells reveals intrinsic differences in macrophages generated through distinct hematopoietic pathways.

Summary: Mass cytometry is used to identify a complex and diverse immune profile in the healthy mid-gestation human placenta at single-cell resolution.

Summary: This study provides versatile tools for the isolation, phenotyping and expansion of human fetal skin T cells, enabling the study of their complexity and heterogeneity allowing new research in skin development and immunity.


Summary: Gene expression changes in the facultative stem cells of the avian inner ear after ototoxic drug-induced hair cell loss in vivo.

Summary: Toll-like receptor signaling in endothelial cells restricts the number of hematopoietic stem cells but increases the number of committed progenitors and intra-arterial hematopoietic cluster cells, and promotes their proliferation.

Summary: Tissue-resident lymphoid cells develop via IL7Rα-positive progenitors and are repopulated by transplanted adult hematopoietic stem cells; however, such TLC lymphopoiesis cannot be fully rescued in IL7Rα−/− recipient mice.

Summary: Toll2-2, one of 11 Toll-related receptors expressed in insect macrophages, induces cytokine expression and promotes cell proliferation during Gryllus bimaculatus leg regeneration.

Summary: This study is the first to show that resolving neutrophilic inflammation using a clinically approved immunomodulatory drug (AT7519) improves heart regeneration in zebrafish.


Summary: Feto-placental macrophages called Hofbauer cells are functionally distinct from maternal placenta macrophages, originate from yolk-sac erythro-myeloid progenitors and are controlled by Pu.1 in a dose-dependent manner.

Summary: Hyper-eosinophilia has an adverse effect on muscle repair, resulting in strong collagen deposition and eventually death, and could be a marker of poor outcomes in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Summary: Jak/Stat pathway activity mediates crosstalk between macrophages/microglia and retinal ganglion cells to regulate retinal ganglion cell survival after injury in zebrafish.


Summary: Laser-mediated osteoblast ablation induces recruitment of tissue-resident macrophages, which are required for osteoblasts to repopulate the lesion site, through glucocorticoid signaling and by a release of reactive oxygen species.

Summary: Mammary gland involution is associated with dynamic changes in immune cell types and numbers at different stages that correlates with the initial rate of growth of implanted tumour cells.

Summary: The Hoxb8 cell lineage reporter provides new insights into the cellular ontogeny of the murine immune system.

Summary: Cellular reprogramming is inefficient in vivo partly because natural killer (NK) cells eliminate cells undergoing reprogramming; transient depletion of NK cells facilitates reprogramming and the emergence of cells with high organoid-formation capacity, which could be important for tissue repair applications.

Summary:Csf1r mutation negatively impacts CSF1R signalling in postnatal development and growth factor responsiveness of macrophage-lineage cells in mice, mirroring the phenotype of adult-onset leukoencephalopathy associated with dominant human CSF1R mutations.

Summary: Ablation of olfactory receptor neurons reveals that odor-sensing and GABA are involved in myeloid reactive oxygen species regulation and hematopoietic growth control.

Summary: The expression of MyD88 and IL10 in B cells is essential for appropriate in utero development and protects against LPS-induced preterm birth.

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