DEVELOPMENT AT A GLANCE
Summary: This Review summarizes the role of autophagy in embryonic, adult and cancer stem cells and cellular reprogramming, and highlights the consequences of autophagy dysregulation on tissue development and homeostasis.
TCF7L1 suppresses primitive streak gene expression to support human embryonic stem cell pluripotency
Summary: TCF7L1 represses PS gene expression to maintain the primed, pluripotent state, with relief of this repression by BMP4 leading to upregulation of PS-promoting genes (including NODAL, WNT3 and BMP4) to drive hESC differentiation.
STEM CELLS AND REGENERATION
Podoplanin regulates mammary stem cell function and tumorigenesis by potentiating Wnt/β-catenin signaling
Highlighted Article: This study reveals a role for the transmembrane glycoprotein podoplanin in mammary stem cell function and tumorigenesis through the positive regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
H3K9 demethylase KDM4E is an epigenetic regulator for bovine embryonic development and a defective factor for nuclear reprogramming
Summary: RNA-dependent KDM4E chromatin localization is essential for active H3K9 demethylation during bovine embryonic genome activation, an observation that could improve outcomes in cloned cattle production.
ES cell-derived presomitic mesoderm-like tissues for analysis of synchronized oscillations in the segmentation clock
Highlighted Article: Embryonic stem cell-derived presomitic mesoderm-like tissues exhibit synchronized Hes7 oscillations, anterior-posterior-like axis formation and segment formation, and are suitable for chemical-library screening for detailed analysis of the segmentation clock.
Microbiota promote secretory cell determination in the intestinal epithelium by modulating host Notch signaling
Highlighted Article: Investigations in gnotobiotic zebrafish reveal that resident intestinal microbes determine intestinal secretory cell fate by modulating host Notch signaling, a highly conserved pathway involved in myriad host cell fate decisions.
Summary: Connexin 30 sets the orientation of astroglial motile protrusions during polarized migration in vitro and contributes in vivo to the establishment of hippocampal astrocyte polarity during postnatal maturation.
Summary: A forced lipophagy system, established by expressing an autophagy adaptor on the surface of lipid droplets, demonstrates that depletion of lipid droplets in fertilized mouse embryos causes developmental retardation.
Lsd1 interacts with cMyb to demethylate repressive histone marks and maintain inner ear progenitor identity
Summary: In chick inner ear development, cMyb is identified as a novel Lsd1-interacting partner that recruits Lsd1 to promoter regions of actively transcribed genes to control H3K9 demethylation.
Summary: Using mouse models to investigate serial tooth formation reveals that contrasting changes in tooth number associated with human mutations in AXIN2 and RUNX2 result from modulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in dental mesenchyme.
β-Catenin signaling is essential for mammalian larynx recanalization and the establishment of vocal fold progenitor cells
Summary: The first demonstration that β-catenin signaling contributes to vocal fold morphogenesis by regulating proliferation and epithelial progenitor establishment, shedding light on the etiology of poorly understood congenital laryngeal malformations.
The ELMO-MBC complex and RhoGAP19D couple Rho family GTPases during mesenchymal-to-epithelial-like transitions
Summary: Rac and Rho activities during dorsal closure are coordinated by the atypical Rac GEF, the ELMO-MBC complex and the Rho GAP RhoGAP19D during in vivo Drosophila mesenchymal-to-epithelial-like transitions.
TECHNIQUES AND RESOURCES
Genome and epigenome engineering CRISPR toolkit for in vivo modulation of cis-regulatory interactions and gene expression in the chicken embryo
Summary: The use of an optimised toolkit for efficient genome and epigenome engineering using CRISPR in chicken embryos is demonstrated, focussing on probing gene regulatory interactions during neural crest development.
Validating upstream regulators of Yorkie activity in Hippo signaling through scalloped-based genetic epistasis
Summary: Analysis of double-mutant clones of sd and putative Yki regulators provides a simple and efficient strategy to validate upstream regulators of Yki activity in Hippo signaling.
Summary: DsRed FT forms the basis of a simple and robust method for direct visualization of oxygenation exposure that is applicable to whole animals with single-cell precision.