IN THIS ISSUE
Summary: This Meeting Review of the 2017 FASEB conference ʻThe TGFβ Superfamily: Signaling in Development and Disease' summarizes recent findings in TGFβ signal transduction mechanisms and control, and their role in tumorigenesis.
Summary: This Review examines genome-wide approaches to elucidate the regulatory principles of pluripotency in human embryos and stem cells, and highlights differences in the regulation of pluripotency between mice and humans.
The long non-coding RNA ROCR contributes to SOX9 expression and chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells
Summary: This study identified a chondrocyte repertoire of lncRNAs and discovered that ROCR (regulator of chondrogenesis RNA) is important for MSC chondrogenesis and cartilage gene expression by promoting the expression of SOX9.
STEM CELLS AND REGENERATION
Highlighted Article: Expression of mesoderm factor Tbx6 reveals a novel regulatory state in the neuromesoderm bipotent progenitor population. Five spinal cords in mutant tail underscore Tbx6 function in mesoderm fate choice of these cells.
Notch is required for the formation of all nephron segments and primes nephron progenitors for differentiation
Summary: Contrary to a previous model, Notch signaling does not promote or repress the formation of a specific nephron segment in mammals. Instead, it promotes nephrogenesis by upregulating Lhx1 and Hnf1b.
Summary: Identification of the dendritic and punctate classes of marker and of foxF-1, ets-1 and fgfrL-1 as novel specification and maintenance regulators provides insight into mechanisms of pigment cell development and regeneration in adult Schmidtea mediterranea.
Drosophila embryonic type II neuroblasts: origin, temporal patterning, and contribution to the adult central complex
Summary: This study shows that embryonic Drosophila type II neuroblasts produce INPs, express late temporal transcription factors, undergo quiescence, and contribute to the central complex of the adult brain.
Highlighted Article: Fgfr3 and Fgfr4 are required in mouse postnatal lung development, where they regulate elastin fiber organization during alveologenesis via mesenchymal expression of the elastin cross-linking factor MFAP5.
Highlighted Article: Ectotherms thrive within an often remarkable temperature range. At low temperatures, βTub97EF, a β-tubulin paralog stabilizing microtubules, is upregulated in a tissue-specific manner in Drosophila melanogaster.
Knockout of the Arp2/3 complex in epidermis causes a psoriasis-like disease hallmarked by hyperactivation of transcription factor Nrf2
Highlighted Article: Knockout of Arpc4 in mouse epidermis reveals that the Arp2/3 complex controls keratinocyte shape and transcriptome through an actin-based cell-autonomous mechanism that can influence epidermal morphogenesis and homeostasis.
Summary: Overexpression and knockdown of LRP4 in mouse cortical and hippocampal neurons both in vitro and in vivo reveals a key role for LRP4 in dendrite and synapse formation during development.
Unique developmental trajectories and genetic regulation of ventricular and outflow tract progenitors in the zebrafish second heart field
Summary: This study uncovers novel aspects of head muscle and heart development in zebrafish, information that will be crucial for deciphering the cellular mechanisms underlying zebrafish models of human congenital disorders.
Conservation and variation in pair-rule gene expression and function in the intermediate-germ beetle Dermestes maculatus
Summary: Expression and functional studies in hide beetles suggest independent roles for pair-rule genes in elongation and segmentation of sequentially segmenting insects, and rewiring of a subset of these regulatory genes.
Summary: As shown by depleting the mRNA levels of key elements of juvenile hormone signaling, juvenile hormone has relevant functions during embryo development in the German cockroach, a basal insect.
Motor neurons with limb-innervating character in the cervical spinal cord are sculpted by apoptosis based on the Hox code in chick embryo
Summary: Hox-dependent apoptosis in the limbless neck region of the chick embryo eliminates a transient population of spinal motor neurons that express Foxp1 and have characteristics of limb-innervating LMC neurons.
Summary: In vivo analysis of C. elegans mechanosensory neurons indicates that the signaling hub RPM-1 regulates growth cone collapse, and is inhibited by PTL-1/Tau.
Different modes of APC/C activation control growth and neuron-glia interaction in the developing Drosophila eye
Summary: APC/C has distinct roles during Drosophila eye development, linking cell division to axon-glia interaction; several genes act downstream of Fzr/Cdh1 to fulfill its manifold functions during neural development.
Summary: The ATPase Pontin is essential for cilia motility in multiple organs in zebrafish and for sperm motility in mice, where it functions with Reptin and Hsp90 in building axonemal dynein complexes.
Hedgehog participates in the establishment of left-right asymmetry during amphioxus development by controlling Cerberus expression
Summary: Disruption of Hh signaling in amphioxus causes loss of Cer expression and bilateral expression of Nodal, Pitx and Lefty, revealing a novel role in LR patterning in this ancient chordate.
HNF1B controls epithelial organization and cell polarity during ureteric bud branching and collecting duct morphogenesis
Summary: High-resolution analyses during ureteric bud branching reveal that HNFB1 is required for maintaining cell-cell contacts, for proper epithelial cell organization and for further differentiation of the collecting duct system.