IN THIS ISSUE
Summary: A recent EMBO Workshop highlighted the latest advances in our understanding of spinal cord development and regeneration, and the techniques used to study it.
A pathway to bone: signaling molecules and transcription factors involved in chondrocyte development and maturation
Summary: This Review article discusses how signaling molecules, mechanical signals and morphological cell features are integrated to regulate chondrogenesis and bone development.
STEM CELLS AND REGENERATION
Asymmetric inheritance of the apical domain and self-renewal of retinal ganglion cell progenitors depend on Anillin function
Highlighted article: The cytokinesis protein Anillin regulates asymmetric cell division in the zebrafish retina, promoting progenitor renewal and influencing retinal ganglion cell differentiation.
Highlighted article: Brain lesion in mice reveals a latent neurogenic potential in striatal astrocytes, which can proliferate and generate new neuroblasts.
Highlighted article: Multiplex gene expression analysis on single cardiac lineage cells provides a high-resolution view of cardiac fate choice in the mouse embryo and during stem cell differentiation.
Bicaudal C1 promotes pancreatic NEUROG3+ endocrine progenitor differentiation and ductal morphogenesis
Summary: Inactivation of the Bicc1 gene, which is associated with kidney displasia in humans, causes pancreatic endocrine differentiation defects leading to cyst formation.
Summary: Mice with conditional depletion of the transcription factor Hnf1b, whose mutation is associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young in humans, show multiple defects in pancreas development.
Activin signaling balances proliferation and differentiation of ovarian niche precursors and enables adjustment of niche numbers
Summary: In the Drosophila ovary, terminal filament cell development is regulated by activin, which, along with the hormone ecdysone, controls expression of the key transcription factor Broad-Z1.
The WNT-controlled transcriptional regulator LBH is required for mammary stem cell expansion and maintenance of the basal lineage
Summary: LBH acts as a transcription cofactor in basal mammary stem cells, inducing expression of ΔNp63 to promote the multipotent state and repress luminal differentiation.
Highlighted article: Degradation dynamics of the auxin-responsive inhibitor IAA14 act as a tunable timer, controlling both the density and timing of lateral root emergence in Arabidopsis.
Highlighted article: During zygotic gene activation in the early mouse embryo, promoter-associated noncoding RNAs can promote expression of their partner mRNAs, which may be important for normal development.
Summary: In the manchette, a structure at the base of the elongating spermatid, the proteins MEIG1 and PACRG act in a complex to control cargo transport and direct formation of the flagellum.
Summary: Costal 2 must bind Fused for efficient Ci-155 processing and for Fused activation in response to Hedgehog but mapped Fused phosphorylation sites on Costal 2 are dispensable.
Summary: In sea urchin embryos, the TGFß ligand Univin regulates skeletal patterning, signaling from the overlying ectoderm to direct development specifically of the anterior skeleton.
Summary: The neurogenic ciliated band of the sea urchin embryo can be divided into four domains, whose boundaries are defined by a network of transcriptional repressors.
The cytoplasmic domain of the gamete membrane fusion protein HAP2 targets the protein to the fusion site in Chlamydomonas and regulates the fusion reaction
Summary: During Chlamydomonas fertilization, membrane localization and activity of the evolutionarily ancient HAP2 protein depends on cytoplasmic motifs; the ectodomain can not function autonomously.
Wnt ligands from the embryonic surface ectoderm regulate ‘bimetallic strip’ optic cup morphogenesis in mouse
Summary: During optic cup morphogenesis, Wnt ligands expressed in the surface ectoderm control cell proliferation in the retinal pigmented epithelium, and thus influence bending of the neural retina.
Summary: Lysyl oxidase, an enzyme that regulates extracellular matrix organization, attenuates TGFß signaling to control the balance of myofibres and connective tissue in muscle.
Drosophila small heat shock protein CryAB ensures structural integrity of developing muscles, and proper muscle and heart performance
Summary: dCryAB, a heat shock protein, displays stress-independent expression in Drosophila muscles and interacts with the actin crosslinker filamin to ensure proper muscle cytoarchitecture.
Summary: A Drosophila basic helix-loop-helix protein, Extramacrochaetae, influences dorsal-ventral patterning in the eye imaginal disc and regulates expression of the polarity protein four-jointed.
TECHNIQUES AND RESOURCES
Summary: Bright-field imaging of unstained specimens during selective plane illumination microscopy can provide in vivo tomographic reconstruction of zebrafish anatomy.