IN THIS ISSUE
Summary: Development Editors announce a new focus on human developmental biology and discuss how they hope to support this expanding field.
Summary: The ability to create chimeric animal models using naïve human pluripotent stem cells is now on the horizon. Should we be concerned about using such chimeric animals?
Summary: Early human and mouse embryos exhibit significant differences in their development, reflected in the properties of stem cell lines derived from these embryos.
Summary: Successful disease therapy often requires an in-depth knowledge of basic developmental biology, not only through study of model organisms but crucially also of human tissue.
Summary: A recent Company of Biologists Workshop brought together a diverse group of scientists with a common interest in understanding human development.
STEM CELLS AND REGENERATION
Myocardin-related transcription factors control the motility of epicardium-derived cells and the maturation of coronary vessels
Highlighted article: Myocardin-related transcription factors respond to TGFβ signalling and control both the motility of mouse epicardium-derived progenitors and the maturation of coronary vessels.
Highlighted article: The T-box/bHLH-zipper transcription factor Mga controls cell survival in pluripotent cells of the mouse embryo and in embryonic stem cells by regulating polyamine pools.
Summary: The polycomb complex protein Bmi1 is regulated by Notch and is required to maintain stem cell function in the mouse intestine.
Doublecortin marks a new population of transiently amplifying muscle progenitor cells and is required for myofiber maturation during skeletal muscle regeneration
Summary: The microtubule-associated protein doublecortin is expressed in a sub-population of Pax7+MyoD- muscle progenitors and modulates cell motility during muscle regeneration in mice.
The centrosome orientation checkpoint is germline stem cell specific and operates prior to the spindle assembly checkpoint in Drosophila testis
Summary: The centrosome orientation checkpoint acts in Drosophila germline stem cells but not their progeny to ensure oriented cell division independent of the spindle assembly checkpoint.
Geminin deletion increases the number of fetal hematopoietic stem cells by affecting the expression of key transcription factors
Summary: Geminin recruits epigenetic regulators to modulate the expression of hematopoietic multipotency genes and the production of stem/progenitor cells in the fetal hematopoietic system.
A Pak-regulated cell intercalation event leading to a novel radial cell polarity is involved in positioning of the follicle stem cell niche in the Drosophila ovary
Summary: Actomyosin contractility drives cell intercalation to shape the basal stalk in the Drosophila ovary, which in turn controls ovary architecture.
Rho kinase activity controls directional cell movements during primitive streak formation in the rabbit embryo
Summary: ROCK regulates cell motility, polarisation, intercalation and division in gastrulating rabbit embryos, revealing a role for Wnt-PCP signalling in primitive streak formation.
Vangl2 cooperates with Rab11 and Myosin V to regulate apical constriction during vertebrate gastrulation
Highlighted article: The PCP component Vangl2 regulates Rab11-dependent trafficking to control apical constriction during Xenopus gastrulation, highlighting a new role for PCP signalling.
Highlighted article: The polycomb component Ezh2 regulates the temporal and spatial patterning of the lung, acting to control the phenotypic switch between basal and secretory cells.
Highlighted article: The chromatin remodeler Chd1 promotes a global increase in transcriptional output by both RNA polymerase I and II that sustains the rapid growth of the mouse epiblast.
Summary: The direct binding of Noggin to Wnt modulates non-canonical BMP and Wnt/β-catenin signalling to regulate cell proliferation and cell fate during early tooth development.
Summary: Eph/ephrin signalling between thalamic axons and cortical progenitors regulates neurogenesis the mouse cortex, providing evidence for extra-cortical control of this process.
Summary: Planar polarity in Arabidopsis is shaped by ACTIN-INTERACTING PROTEIN1-2, which is under the control of WEREWOLF-dependent patterning and ethylene signalling.
Summary: In Drosophila sensory neurons, the membrane protein Raw regulates terminal dendrite adhesion via Tricornered kinase and dendrite elongation via cytoskeletal remodelling and Ago1.
The Rac1 regulator ELMO controls basal body migration and docking in multiciliated cells through interaction with Ezrin
Summary: An Ezrin/ELMO/DOCK180/Rac1 complex regulates the cortical actin web in zebrafish and Xenopus multicilliated cells thereby controlling basal body migration, docking and spacing.
Summary: Positional information provided by different patterning mechanisms is integrated via two cis-acting elements to regulate Krox20 expression in the mouse hindbrain.
Enthesis fibrocartilage cells originate from a population of Hedgehog-responsive cells modulated by the loading environment
Summary: The formation of a functional mineralized tendon enthesis, which links tendons to bones, involves Hedgehog-responsive cells and is modulated by muscle loading.
Summary: A spatiotemporal gradient of Wnt signaling, which is known to pattern early vertebrate embryos, regulates the segregation of cell fate in the invertebrate sea star embryo.
Summary: Nuclear positioning in developing skeletal muscle cells is dependent on interactions between kinesin light chains and nesprins, which localize kinesin to the nuclear envelope.