Mutation of sucker (suc) disrupts development of the lower jaw and other ventral cartilages in pharyngeal segments of the zebrafish head. Our sequencing, cosegregation and rescue results indicate that suc encodes an Endothelin-1 (Et-1). Like mouse and chick Et-1, suc/et-1 is expressed in a central core of arch paraxial mesoderm and in arch epithelia, both surface ectoderm and pharyngeal endoderm, but not in skeletogenic neural crest. Long before chondrogenesis, suc/et-1 mutant embryos have severe defects in ventral arch neural crest expression of dHAND, dlx2, msxE, gsc, dlx3 and EphA3 in the anterior arches. Dorsal expression patterns are unaffected. Later in development, suc/et-1 mutant embryos display defects in mesodermal and endodermal tissues of the pharynx. Ventral premyogenic condensations fail to express myoD, which correlates with a ventral muscle defect. Further, expression of shh in endoderm of the first pharyngeal pouch fails to extend as far laterally as in wild types. We use mosaic analyses to show that suc/et-1 functions nonautonomously in neural crest cells, and is thus required in the environment of postmigratory neural crest cells to specify ventral arch fates. Our mosaic analyses further show that suc/et-1 nonautonomously functions in mesendoderm for ventral arch muscle formation. Collectively our results support a model for dorsoventral patterning of the gnathostome pharyngeal arches in which Et-1 in the environment of the postmigratory cranial neural crest specifies the lower jaw and other ventral arch fates.

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