We have investigated the role of proteinases in the developmental program of bone, cartilage, tongue muscle and epithelial differentiation and remodeling in the mandibular arch during murine embryogenesis. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) was tissue-specific with little or no expression in the epithelium of tooth buds, tongue or oral cavity. Gelatinase A mRNA transcripts were strongly expressed in the perichondrium of Meckel's cartilage and mesenchymal areas of embryonic day 13–15 mandibles, whereas gelatinase B, collagenase-3, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 mRNA were found primarily in the ossifying areas of the mandibles. The skeletal muscle of the tongue expressed stromelysin-3, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 mRNA while stromelysin-3, TIMP-2 and gelatinase A were seen in the overlying connective tissue layer. Gelatinase A, gelatinase B, stromelysin-1, urokinase, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 mRNA and protein activities were also detected in cultured mandibular explants. Culture of day 10 mandibular explants with a hydroxamic acid metalloproteinase inhibitor, but not with inhibitors of metalloendopeptidases (thiorphan and phosphoramidon), serine proteinases (aprotinin), cysteine proteinases (leupeptin) and urokinase (amiloride), altered mandibular morphogenesis dramatically. Development of the tongue (glossogenesis) and cartilage, but not bone or teeth was affected. Formation of the oral sulcus and fusion of the two epithelia of the medial sulcus were inhibited, and number and migration of myoblasts decreased. The resulting ‘tongue-tied phenotype’ indicates that MMPs are involved in epithelial morphogenesis and the migration of myoblasts to the region of the tongue. Development of the anterior segment of Meckel's cartilage was also inhibited and proteoglycan content of the cartilage was reduced by inhibiting MMPs. Our data suggest that matrix metalloproteinases play a pivotal role in the morphogenesis of structures derived from epithelium (oral sulcus), cranial paraxial mesoderm (tongue) and cranial neural crest (Meckel's cartilage).
Matrix metalloproteinases regulate morphogenesis, migration and remodeling of epithelium, tongue skeletal muscle and cartilage in the mandibular arch
- Views Icon Views
- PDF LinkPDF
- Share Icon Share
- Search Site
J.R. Chin, Z. Werb; Matrix metalloproteinases regulate morphogenesis, migration and remodeling of epithelium, tongue skeletal muscle and cartilage in the mandibular arch. Development 15 April 1997; 124 (8): 1519–1530. doi: https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.124.8.1519
Download citation file: