The vertebrate zinc finger genes of the Gli family are homologs of the Drosophila gene cubitus interruptus. In frog embryos, Gli1 is expressed transiently in the prospective floor plate during gastrulation and in cells lateral to the midline during late gastrula and neurula stages. In contrast, Gli2 and Gli3 are absent from the neural plate midline with Gli2 expressed widely and Gli3 in a graded fashion with highest levels in lateral regions. In mouse embryos, the three Gli genes show a similar pattern of expression in the neural tube but are coexpressed throughout the early neural plate. Because Gli1 is the only Gli gene expressed in prospective floor plate cells of frog embryos, we have investigated a possible involvement of this gene in ventral neural tube development. Here we show that Shh signaling activates Gli1 transcription and that widespread expression of endogenous frog or human glioma Gli1, but not Gli3, in developing frog embryos results in the ectopic differentiation of floor plate cells and ventral neurons within the neural tube. Floor-plate-inducing ability is retained when cytoplasmic Gli1 proteins are forced into the nucleus or are fused to the VP16 transactivating domain. Thus, our results identify Gli1 as a midline target of Shh and suggest that it mediates the induction of floor plate cells and ventral neurons by Shh acting as a transcriptional regulator.

REFERENCES

Alexandre
C.
,
Jacinto
A.
,
Ingham
P. W.
(
1996
)
Transcriptional activation of hedgehog target genes in Drosophila is mediated directly by theCubitus interruptus protein, a member of the Gli family of zinc finger DNA-binding proteins.
GenesDev
10
,
2003
2013
Ang
S. L.
,
Wierda
A.
,
Wong
D.
,
Stevens
K. A.
,
Cascio
S.
,
Rossant
J.
,
Zaret
K. S.
(
1993
)
The formation and maintenance of the definitive endoderm lineage in the mouse: involvement of HNF-3/fork head proteins.
Development
119
,
1301
1315
Barth
K. A.
,
Wilson
S. W.
(
1995
).
Zebrafish Nkx2.2 is regulated by sonic hedgehog/vertebrte hedgehog-1 and demarcates a neurogenic zone in the embryonic forebrain.
Development
121
,
1755
1768
Belloni
E.
,
Muenke
M.
,
Roessler
E.
,
Traverso
G.
,
Siegel-Bartelt
J.
,
Frumkin
A.
,
Mitchell
H. F.
,
Donis-Keller
H.
,
Helms
C.
,
Hing
A. V.
,
Heng
H. H. Q.
,
Koop
B.
,
Martindale
D.
,
Rommens
J. M.
,
Tsui
L.-C.
,
Scherer
S. W.
(
1996
)
Identification of Sonic hedgehog as a candidate gene responsible for holoprosencephaly.
NatureGenetics
14
,
353
356
Campbell
M. E. M.
,
Palfreyman
J. W.
,
Preston
C. M.
(
1984
)
Identification of herpes simplex virus DNA sequences which encode a trans-acting polypeptide responsible for the stimulation of immediate early trasncription.
J. Mol. Biol
180
,
1
19
Chang
D. T.
,
Lopez
A.
,
von Kessler
D. P.
,
Chiang
C.
,
Simandl
B. K.
,
Zhao
R.
,
Seldin
M. F.
,
Fallon
J. F.
,
Beachy
P. A.
(
1994
)
Products, genetic linkage, and limb patterning activity of a murine hedgehog gene.
Development
120
,
3339
3353
Chen
Y.
,
Struhl
G.
(
1996
)
Dual roles for patched in sequestering and transducing hedgehog.
Cell
87
,
553
563
Chiang
C.
,
Litingtung
Y.
,
Lee
E.
,
Young
K. E.
,
Corden
J. L.
,
Westphal
H.
,
Beachy
P. A.
(
1996
)
Cyclopia and defective axial patterning in mice lacking Sonichedgehog gene function.
Nature
383
,
407
413
Chitnis
A.
,
Henrique
D.
,
Lewis
J.
,
Ish-Horowicz
D.
,
Kintner
C.
(
1995
)
Primary neurogenesis in Xenopus embryos regulated by a homologue of the Drosophila neurogenic gene Delta.
Nature
375
,
761
766
Concordet
J.-P.
,
Lewis
K.E.
,
Moore
J.W.
,
Goodrich
L.V.
,
Johnson
R.L.
,
Scott
M.P.
,
Ingham
P.W.
(
1996
)
Spatial regulation of a zebrafish patched homologue reflects the roles of sonic hedgehog and protein kinase A in neural tube and somite patterning.
Development
122
,
2835
2846
Conlon
R. A.
,
Herrmann
B. G.
(
1993
)
Detection of messenger RNA by in situ hybridization to postimplantation embryo whole mounts.
Methods in Enzymology
225
,
373
383
Dale
L.
,
Slack
J. M. W.
(
1987
)
Fate map for the 32-cell stage of Xenopus laevis.
Development
99
,
197
210
Dale
L.
,
Howes
G.
,
Price
B. M.
,
Smith
J. C.
(
1992
)
Bone morphogenetic protein 4: a ventralizing factor in early Xenopus development.
Development
115
,
573
585
Dirksen
M. L.
,
Jamrich
M.
(
1992
)
A novel, activin-inducible, blastopore lip-specific gene of Xenopus laevis contains a fork head DNA-binding domain.
Genes Dev
6
,
599
608
Domínguez
M.
,
Brunner
M.
,
Hafen
E.
,
Basler
K.
(
1996
)
Sending and receiving the hedgehog signal: control by the Drosophila Gli protein cubitus interruptus.
Science
272
,
1621
1625
Eaton
S.
,
Kornberg
T. B.
(
1990
)
Repression of ci-D in posterior compartments of Drosophila by engrailed.
Genes Dev
4
,
1068
1077
Echelard
Y.
,
Epstein
D. J.
,
St-Jacques
B.
,
Shen
L.
,
Mohler
J.
,
McMahon
J. A.
,
McMahon
A. P.
(
1993
)
Sonic hedgehog, a member of a family of putative signaling molecules, is implicated in the regulation of CNS polarity.
Cell
75
,
1417
1430
Ekker
S. C.
,
McGrew
L. L.
,
Lai
C.-J.
,
Lee
J. J.
,
von Kessler
D. P.
,
Moon
R. T.
,
Beachy
P. A.
(
1995
)
Distinct expression and shared activities of members of the hedgehog gene family of Xenopus laevis.
Development
121
,
2337
2347
Epstein
D. J.
,
Martí
E.
,
Scott
M. P.
,
McMahon
A. P.
(
1996
)
Antagonizing cAMP dependent protein kinase A in the dorsal CNS activates a conserved Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway.
Development
122
,
2885
2894
Ericson
J.
,
Muhr
J.
,
Placzek
M.
,
Lints
T.
,
Jessell
T. M.
,
Edlund
T.
(
1995
)
Sonic hedgehog induces the differentiation of ventral forebrain neurons: a common signal for ventral patterning within the neural tube.
Cell
81
,
747
756
Ericson
J.
,
Mortin
S.
,
Kawakami
A.
,
Roelink
H.
,
Jessell
T. M.
(
1996
)
Two critical periods of sonic hedgehog signaling required for the specification of motor neuron identity.
Cell
87
,
661
673
Fainsod
A.
,
Steinbeisser
H.
,
De Robertis
E. M.
(
1994
)
On the function of BMP-4 in patterning the marginal zone of the Xenopus embryo.
EMBO J
13
,
5015
5025
Fan
C.-M.
,
Tessier-Lavigne
M.
(
1994
)
Patterning of mammalian somites by surface ectoderm and notochord: evidence for sclerotome induction by a hedgehog homolog.
Cell
79
,
1175
1186
Fan
C.-M.
,
Porter
J. A.
,
Chiang
C.
,
Chang
D. T.
,
Beachy
P. A.
,
Tessier-Lavigne
M.
(
1995
)
Long-range sclerotome induction by sonic hedgehog: direct role of the amino-terminal cleavage product and modulation by the cyclic AMP signaling pathway.
Cell
81
,
457
465
Forbes
A.J.
,
Nakano
Y.
,
Taylor
A. M.
,
Ingham
P. W.
(
1993
)
Genetic analysis of hedgehog signalling in the Drosophila embryo.
Development
1993
,
115
124
Franz
T.
(
1994
)
Extra-Toes (Xt) Homozygous Mutant Mice Demonstrate a Role for the Gli-3 Gene in the Development of the Forebrain.
Acta Anat
150
,
38
44
Fu
X.-D.
,
Maniatis
T.
(
1990
)
Factor required for mamalian spliceosome assembly is localized to discrete regions in the nucleus.
Nature
343
,
437
441
Goodrich
L. V.
,
Johnson
R. L.
,
Milenkovic
L.
,
McMahon
J. A.
,
Scott
M. P.
(
1996
)
Conservation of the hedgehog/patched signaling pathway from flies to mice: induction of a mouse patched gene by Hedgehog.
Genes Development
10
,
301
312
Goulding
M.
,
Lumsden
A.
,
Gruss
P.
(
1993
)
Signals from the notochord and floor plate regulate the region-specific expression of two pax genes in the developing spinal cord.
Development
117
,
1001
1016
Hahn
H.
,
Wicking
C.
,
Zaphiropoulous
P. G.
,
Gailani
M. R.
,
Shanley
S.
,
Chidambaram
A.
,
Vorechovsky
I.
,
Holmberg
E.
,
Unden
A. B.
,
Gillies
S.
,
Negus
K.
,
Smyth
I.
,
Pressman
C.
,
Leffell.
D. J.
,
Gerrard
B.
,
Goldstein
A. M.
,
Dean
M.
,
Toftgard
R.
,
Chenevix-Trench
G.
,
Wainwrught
B.
,
Bale
A. E.
(
1996
)
Mutations of the human homolog of Drosohila patched in the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.
Cell
85
,
841
951
Hammerschmidt
M.
,
Bitgood
M. J.
,
McMahon
A. P.
(
1996
)
Protein kinase A is a common negative regulator of Hedgehog signaling in the vertebrate embryo.
Genes Dev
10
,
647
658
Harland
R. M.
(
1991
)
In situ hybridization: an improved whole mount method for Xenopus embryos.
Meth. Enzymol
36
,
675
685
Hemmati-Brivanlou
A.
,
Thomsen
G.
(
1995
)
Ventral mesodermal patterning in Xenopus embros: expression patterns and activities of BMP-2 and BMP-4.
Dev. Genetics
17
,
78
89
Hui
C.-C.
,
Joyner
A. L.
(
1993
)
A mouse model of Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome: the extra-toesJ mutation contains an intragenic deletion of the Gli3 gene.
Nature Genetics
3
,
241
246
Hui
C.-C.
,
Slusarski
D.
,
Platt
K. A.
,
Holmgren
R.
,
Joyner
A. L.
(
1994
)
Expression of three mouse homologs of the Drosophila segment polarity gene cubitus interruptus, Gli, Gli-2, and Gli-3, in ectoderm and mesoderm-derived tissues suggests multiple roles during postimplantation development.
Dev. Biol
162
,
402
413
Hynes
M.
,
Porter
J. A.
,
Chians
C.
,
Chang
D.
,
Tessier-Lavigne
M.
,
Beachy
P. A.
(
1995
)
Induction of midbrain dopaminergic neurons by sonic hedgehog.
Neuron
15
,
35
44
Johnson
D. R.
(
1967
)
Extra-toes: a new mutant gene causing multiple abnormalities in the mouse.
J. Embryol. Exp. Morph
17
,
543
581
Johnson
R. L.
,
Rothman
A. L.
,
Xie
J.
,
Goodrich
L. V.
,
Bare
J. W.
,
Bonifas
J. M.
,
Quinn
A. G.
,
Myers
R. M.
,
Cox
D.R.
,
Epstein
E. H.
Jr.
,
Scott
M. P.
(
1996
)
Human homolog of patched, a candidate gene for the basal cell nevus syndrome.
Science
272
,
1668
1671
Kelsey-Motzny
C.
,
Holmgren
R.
(
1995
)
The Drosophila cubitus interruptus protein and its role in the wingless and hedgehog signal transduction pathways.
Mech. Dev
52
,
137
150
Kintner
C. R.
,
Melton
D. A.
(
1987
)
Expression of the Xenopus N-CAM RNA in ectoderm is an early response to neural induction.
Development
99
,
311
325
Kinzler
K. W.
,
Bigner
S. H.
,
Bigner
D. D.
,
Trent
J. M.
,
Law
M. L.
,
O'Brien
S. J.
,
Wong
A. J.
,
Vogelstein
B.
(
1987
)
Identification of an amplified, highly expressed gene in a human glioma.
Science
236
,
70
73
Kinzler
K. W.
,
Ruppert
J. M.
,
Bigner
S. H.
,
Vogelstein
B.
(
1988
)
The GLI gene is a member of the Kruppel family of zinc finger proteins.
Nature
332
,
371
74
Kinzler
K. W.
,
Vogelstein
B.
(
1990
)
The GLI gene encodes a nuclear protein which binds specific sequences in the human genome.
Mol. Cell Biol
10
,
634
642
Knöchel
S.
,
Lef
J.
,
Clement
J.
,
Klocke
B.
,
Hille
S.
,
Koster
M.
,
Knöchel
W.
(
1992
)
Activin A-induced expression of a fork-head-related gene in posterior chordamesoderm (notochord) of Xenopus laevis embryos.
Mech. Dev
38
,
157
165
Krauss
S.
,
Concordet
J.-P.
,
Ingham
P. W.
(
1993
)
A functionallyconserved homolog of the Drosophila segment polarity gene hedgehog is expressed in tissues with polarizing activity in zebrafish embryos.
Cell
75
,
1431
1444
Larsson
S. H.
,
Charlieu
J.-P.
,
Miyagawa
K.
,
Engelkamo
D.
,
Rassoulzadegan
M.
,
Ross
A.
,
Cuzin
F.
,
van Heyningen
V.
,
Hastie
N. D.
(
1995
)
Subnuclear localization of WT1 in splicing or transcription factor domains is regulated by alternative splicing.
Cell
81
,
391
401
Lazzaro
D.
,
Price
M.
,
De Felice
M.
,
Di Lauro
R.
(
1991
)
The transcription factor TTF-1 is expressed at the onset of thyroid and lung morphogenesis and in restricted regions of the foetal brain.
Development
113
,
1093
1104
Liem
K. F.
Jr.
,
Tremmel
G.
,
Roelink
H.
,
Jessell
T. M.
(
1995
)
Dorsal differentiation of neural plate cells induced by BMP-mediated signals from epidermal ectoderm.
Cell
82
,
969
979
Marigo
V.
,
Scott
M. P.
,
Johnson
R. L.
,
Goodrich
L. V.
,
Tabin
C. J.
(
1996
)
Conservation in hedgehog signaling: induction of a chicken patched homolog by Sonic hedgehog in the developing limb.
Development
122
,
1225
1233
Marigo
V.
,
Tabin
C. J.
(
1996
)
Regulation of Patched by Sonic hedgehog in the developing neural tube.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
93
,
9346
9351
Marigo
V.
,
Davey
R. A.
,
Zuo
Y.
,
Cunningham
J. M.
,
Tabin
C. J.
(
1996
)
Biochemical evidence that patched is the hedgehog receptor.
Nature
384
,
176
179
Martí
E.
,
Bumcrot
D. A.
,
Takada
R.
,
McMahon
A. P.
(
1995
)
Requirement of 19K form of Sonic hedgehog for induction of distinct ventral cell types in CNS explants.
Nature
375
,
322
325
Martí
E.
,
Takada
R.
,
Bumcrot
D. A.
,
Sasaki
H.
,
McMahon
A. P.
(
1995
)
Distribution of sonic hedgehog peptides in the developing chick and mouse embryo.
Development
121
,
2537
2547
Masuya
H.
,
Sagai
T.
,
Wakana
S.
,
Moriwaki
K.
,
Shiroishi
T.
(
1995
)
A duplicated zone of polarizing activity in polydactylous mouse mutants.
Genes Dev
13
,
1645
1653
Monaghan
A. P.
,
Kaestner
K. H.
,
Grau
E.
,
Schutz
G.
(
1993
)
Postimplanation expression patterns indicate a role for the mouse forkhead/HNF-3, andgenes in determination of the definitive endoderm, chordamesoderm and neuroectoderm.
Development
119
,
567
578
Nishimatsu
S.
,
Suzuki
A.
,
Shoda
A.
,
Murakami
K.
,
Ueno
N.
(
1992
)
Genes for bone morphogenetic proteins are differentiatlly transcribed in early amphibian embryos.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Com
186
,
1487
1495
Orenic
T. V.
,
Slusarski
D. C.
,
Kroll
K. L.
,
Holmgren
R. A.
(
1990
)
Cloning and characterization of the segment polarity gene cubitus interruptus dominant of Drosophila.
Genes Dev
4
,
1053
1067
Patel
N. H.
,
Martin-Blanco
E.
,
Coleman
K. G.
,
Poole
S. J.
,
Ellis
M. C.
,
Kornberg
T. B.
,
Goodman
C. S.
(
1989
)
Expression of engrailed proteins in arthropods, annelids and chordates.
Cell
58
,
955
968
Pavletich
N. P.
,
Pabo
C. O.
(
1993
)
Crystal structure of a five-finger GLI-DNA complex: new perspectives on zinc fingers.
Science
261
,
1701
1707
Perrimon
N.
(
1995
)
Hedgehog and beyond.
Cell
80
,
517
520
Placzek
M.
,
Tessier-Lavigne
M.
,
Yamada
T.
,
Jessell
T. M.
,
Dodd
J.
(
1990
)
Mesodermal control of neural cell identity: floor plate induction by the notochord.
Science
250
,
985
988
Placzek
M.
,
Jessell
T. M.
,
Dodd
J.
(
1993
)
Induction of floor plate differentiation by contact-dependent, homeogenetic signals.
Development
117
,
205
218
Pourquie
O.
,
Coltey
M.
,
Breant
C.
,
Le Douarin
N. M.
(
1995
)
Control of somite patterning by signals from the lateral plate.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
92
,
3219
3223
Pourquie
O.
,
Fan
C.-M.
,
Coltey
M.
,
Hirsinger
E.
,
Watanabe
Y.
,
Breant
C.
,
Francis-West
P.
,
Brickell
P.
,
Tessier-Lavigne
M.
,
Le Douarin
N. M.
(
1996
)
Lateral and axial signals involved in somite patterning: a role for BMP-4.
Cell
84
,
461
471
Price
M.
,
Lazzaro
D.
,
Pohl
T.
,
Mattei
M.-G.
,
Ruther
U.
,
Olivo
J.-C.
,
Duboule
D.
,
Di Lauro
R.
(
1992
).
Regional expression of the homeobox gene Nkx2.2 in the developing mammalian forebrain.
Neuron
8
,
241
255
Richter
K.
,
Grunz
H.
,
Dawid
I. B.
(
1988
)
Gene expression in the embryonic nervous system of Xenopus laevis.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
85
,
8086
8090
Riddle
R.
,
Johnson
R. L.
,
Laufer
E.
,
Tabin
C.
(
1993
)
Sonic hedgehog mediates the polarizing activity of the ZPA.
Cell
751
,
401
1418
Roberts
W. M.
,
Douglass
E. C.
,
Peiper
S. C.
,
Houghton
P. J.
,
Look
A. T.
(
1989
)
Amplification of the gli gene in childhood sarcomas.
Cancer Research
49
,
5407
5413
Roelink
H.
,
Augsburger
A.
,
Heemskerk
J.
,
Korzh
V.
,
Norlin
S.
,
Ruiz i Altaba
A.
,
Tanabe
Y.
,
Placzek
M.
,
Edlund
T.
,
Jessell
T. M.
,
Dodd
J.
(
1994
)
Floor plate and motor neuron induction by vhh-1, a vertebrate homolog of hedgehog expressed by the notochord.
Cell
76
,
761
775
Roelink
H.
,
Porter
J. A.
,
Chiang
C.
,
Tanabe
Y.
,
Chang
D. T.
,
Beachy
P. A.
,
Jessell
T. M.
(
1995
)
Floor plate and motor neuron induction by different concentrations of the amino-terminal cleavage product of sonic hedgehog autoproteolysis.
Cell
81
,
445
455
Roessler
E.
,
Belloni
E.
,
Gaudenz
K.
,
Jay
P.
,
Berta
P.
,
Scherer
S. W.
,
Tsui
L.-C.
,
Muenke
M.
(
1996
)
Mutations in the human Sonic Hedgehog gene cause holoprosencephaly.
Nature Genetics
14
,
357
360
Ruiz i Altaba
A.
(
1992
)
Cooperation of Planar and Vertical Signals in the Induction and Patterning of the Xenopus Nervous System.
Development
115
,
67
80
Ruiz i Altaba
A.
(
1994
)
Pattern formation in the vertebrate neural plate.
Trends Neurosci
17
,
233
243
Ruiz i Altaba
A.
,
Jessell
T. M.
(
1991
)
Retinoic acid modifies the pattern of cell differentiation in the central nervous system of neurula stage Xenopus embryos.
Development
112
,
945
958
Ruiz i Altaba
A.
,
Jessell
T. M.
(
1992
)
Pintallavis, a gene expressed in the organizer and midline cells of frog embryos: involvement in the development of the neural axis.
Development
116
,
81
93
Ruiz i Altaba
A.
,
Prezioso
V. R.
,
Darnell
J. E.
,
Jessell
T. M.
(
1993
)
Sequential expression of HNF-3and HNF-3 by embryonic organizing centers: the dorsal lip/node, notochord and floor plate.
Mech. Dev
44
,
91
108
Ruiz i Altaba
A.
,
Cox
C.
,
Jessell
T. M.
,
Klar
A.
(
1993
)
Ectopic neural expression of a floor plate marker in frog embryos injected with the midline transcription factor Pintallavis.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
90
,
8268
8272
Ruiz i Altaba
A.
,
Jessell
T. M.
,
Roelink
H.
(
1995
)
Restrictions to floor plate induction by hedgehog and winged-helix genes in the neural tube of frog embryos.
Mol. Cell. Neurosci
6
,
106
121
Ruiz i Altaba
A.
,
Placzek
M.
,
Baldassare
M.
,
Dodd
J.
,
Jessell
T. M.
(
1995
)
Early stages of notochord and floor plate differentiation defined by normal and induced expression of HNF-3in chick embryos.
Dev. Biol
170
,
299
313
Rupp
R. A. W.
,
Snider
L.
,
Weintraub
H.
(
1994
)
Xenopus embryos regulate the nuclear localization of XMyoD.
Genes Dev
8
,
1311
1323
Ruppert
J. M.
,
Kinzler
K. W.
,
Wong
A. J.
,
Bigner
S. H.
,
Kao
F. T.
,
Law
M. L.
,
Seuanez
H. N.
,
O'Brien
S. J.
,
Vogelstein
B.
(
1988
)
The GLI-Kruppel family of human genes.
Mol. Cell. Biol
8
,
3104
3113
Ruppert
J. M.
,
Vogelstein
B.
,
Arheden
K.
,
Kinzler
K.W.
(
1990
)
GLI3 encodes a 190-kilodalton protein with multiple regions of GLI similarity.
Mol. Cell Biol
10
,
5408
5415
Ruppert
J.M.
,
Vogelstein
B.
,
Kinzler
K.W.
(
1991
)
The zinc finger protein GLI transforms primary cells in cooperation with adenovirus E1A.
Mol. Cell Biol
11
,
1724
1728
Sánchez-Herrero
E.
,
Couso
J. P.
,
Capdevila
J.
,
Guerrero
I.
(
1996
)
The fu gene discriminates between pathways to control dpp expression in Drosophila imaginal discs.
Mech. Dev
55
,
159
170
Sasaki
H.
,
Hogan
B.
(
1993
)
Differential expression of multiple fork head related genes during gastrulation and axial pattern formation in the mouse embryo.
Development
118
,
47
59
Sasaki
H.
,
Hogan
B.
(
1994
)
HNF-3as a regulator of floor plate development.
Cell
76
,
103
115
Schimmang
T.
,
Lemaistre
M.
,
Vortkamp
A.
,
Ruther
U.
(
1992
)
Expression of the zinc finger gene Gli3 is affected in the morphogenetic mouse mutant extra-toes (Xt).
Development
116
,
799
804
Simon
H.
,
Hornbruch
A.
,
Lumsden
A.
(
1995
)
Independent assignment of antero-posterior and dorso-ventral positional values in the developing chick hindbrain.
Current Biol
5
,
205
214
Slusarski
D.C.
,
Kelsey Motzny
C.
,
Holmgren
R.
(
1995
)
Mutations that alter the timing and pattern of cubitus interruptus gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster.
Genetics
139
,
229
240
Stone
D. M.
,
Hynes
M.
,
Armanini
M.
,
Swanson
T. A.
,
Gu
Q.
,
Johnson
R. L.
,
Scott
M. P.
,
Pennica
D.
,
Goddard
A.
,
Phillips
H.
,
Noll
M.
,
Hooper
J. E.
,
de Sauvage
F.
,
Rosenthal
A.
(
1996
)
The tumor suppressor genepatched encodes a candidate receptor for sonic hedgehog.
Nature
384
,
129
134
Strähle
U.
,
Blader
P.
,
Henrique
D.
,
Ingham
P. W.
(
1993
)
Axial, a zebrafish gene expressed along the developing body axis, shows altered expression in cyclops mutant embryos.
Genes Dev
7
,
1436
1446
Tanabe
Y.
,
Roelink
H.
,
Jessell
T. M.
(
1995
)
Induction of motor neurons by Sonic hedgehog is independent of floor plate differentiation.
Current Biology
5
,
651
658
Tanimura
A.
,
Teshima
H.
,
Fujisawa
J.
,
Yoshida
M.
(
1993
)
A new regulatory element that augments the Tax-dependent enhancer of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 and cloning of cDNAs encoding its binding proteins.
J. Virology
67
,
5375
5382
Triezenberg
S. J.
,
Kingsbury
R. C.
,
McKnight
S. L.
(
1988
)
Functional dissection of VP16, the trans-activator of herpes simplex virus immediate early gene expression.
GenesDev
2
,
718
729
Turner
D. L.
,
Weintraub
H.
(
1994
)
Expression of achaete-scute homolog 3 in Xenopus embryos converts ectodermal cells to a neural fate.
GenesDev
8
,
1434
1447
van Mier
P.
,
Joosten
H. W. J.
,
van Rheden
R.
,
Ten Donkelaar
H. J.
(
1986
)
The development of serotonergic raphespinal projections in Xenopus laevis.
Int. J. Develop. Neurosci
24
,
465
476
van Straaten
H. W. M.
,
Hekking
J. W. M.
,
Wiertz-Hoessels
E. L.
,
Thors
F.
,
Drukker
J.
(
1988
)
Effect of the notochord on the differentiation of a floor plate area in the neural tube of the chick embryo.
Anat. Embryol
177
,
317
324
van Straaten
H. W. M.
,
Hekking
J. W. M.
(
1991
)
Development of floor plate, neurons and axonal outgrowth pattern in the early spinal cord of the notochord-deficient chick embryo.
Anat. Embryol
184
,
55
63
Vortkamp
A.
,
Gessler
M.
,
Grzeschik
K.-H.
(
1991
)
GLI3 zinc-finger gene interrupted by translocations in Greig syndrome families.
Nature
352
,
539
540
Walterhouse
D.
,
Ahmed
M.
,
Slusarski
D.
,
Kalamaras
J.
,
Boucher
D.
,
Holmgren
R.
,
Iannaccone
P.
(
1993
)
gli, a zinc finger transcription factor and oncogene, is expressed during normal mouse development.
Dev. Dyn
196
,
91
102
Yamada
T.
,
Placzek
M.
,
Tanaka
H.
,
Dodd
J.
,
Jessell
T. M.
(
1991
)
Control of cell pattern in the developing nervous system: polarizing activity of the floor plate notochord.
Cell
64
,
635
647
Zarkower
D.
,
Hodgkin
J.
(
1992
)
Molecular Analysis of the C. elegans Sex-Determining Gene tra-1: A Gene Encoding Two Zinc Finger Proteins.
Cell
70
,
237
249
This content is only available via PDF.