The Drosophila segment polarity gene wingless (wg) is required in the regulation of engrailed (en) expression and the determination of cell fates in neighboring cells. This paracrine wg activity also regulates transcription of wg itself, through a positive feedback loop including en activity. In addition, wg has a second, more direct autoregulatory requirement that is distinct from the en-dependent feedback loop. Four gene products, encoded by armadillo (arm), dishevelled (dsh), porcupine (porc) and zeste-white 3 (zw3), have been previously implicated as components of wg paracrine signaling. Here we have used three different assays to assess the requirements of these genes in the more direct wg autoregulatory pathway. While the activities of dsh, zw3 and arm appear to be specific to the paracrine feedback pathway, the more direct autoregulatory pathway requires porc.

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