In Drosophila dosage compensation increases the rate of transcription of the male's X chromosome and depends on four autosomal male-specific lethal genes. We have cloned the msl-2 gene and shown that MSL-2 protein is co-localized with the other three MSL proteins at hundreds of sites along the male polytene X chromosome and that this binding requires the other three MSL proteins. msl-2 encodes a protein with a putative DNA-binding domain: the RING finger. MSL-2 protein is not produced in females and sequences in both the 5′ and 3′ UTRs are important for this sex-specific regulation. Furthermore, msl-2 pre-mRNA is alternatively spliced in a Sex-lethal-dependent fashion in its 5′ UTR.

Reference

Ahringer
J.
,
Kimble
J.
(
1991
)
Control of the sperm-oocyte switch in Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodites by the fem-3 3untranslated region.
Nature
349
,
346
348
Baker
B. S.
,
Gorman
M.
,
Marín
I.
(
1994
)
Dosage compensation in Drosophila.
Annu. Rev. Genet
28
,
491
521
Bang
D. D.
,
Verhage
R.
,
Goosen
N.
,
Browner
J.
,
van de Putte
P.
(
1992
)
Molecular cloning of RAD16, a gene involved in differential repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Nuc. Acids. Res
20
,
3925
3931
Boggs
R. T.
,
Gregor
P.
,
Idriss
S.
,
Belote
J. M.
,
McKeown
M.
(
1987
)
Regulation of sexual differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster via alternative splicing of RNA from the transformer gene.
Cell
50
,
739
747
Bone
J. R.
,
Lavender
J.
,
Richman
R.
,
Palmer
M. J.
,
Turner
B. M.
,
Kuroda
M. I.
(
1994
)
Acetylated histone H4 on the male X chromosome is associated with dosage compensation in Drosophila.
Genes Dev
8
,
96
104
Chuang
P. T.
,
Albertson
D. G.
,
Meyer
B. J.
(
1994
)
DPY-27: a chromosome condensation protein homolog that regulates C. elegans dosage compensation through association with the X chromosome.
Cell
79
,
459
74
Cline
T. W.
(
1978
)
Two closely linked mutations in Drosophila melanogaster that are lethal in opposite sexes and interact with daughterless.
Genetics
90
,
683
698
Curtis
D.
,
Lehmann
R.
,
Zamore
P. D.
(
1995
)
Translational regulation in development.
Cell
81
,
171
178
DiAntonio
A.
,
Burgess
R. W.
,
Chin
A. C.
,
Deitcher
D. L.
,
Scheller
R. H.
,
Schwartz
T. L.
(
1993
)
Identification and characterization of Drosophila genes for synaptic vesicle proteins.
J. Neurosci
13
,
4924
4935
Freemont
P. S.
,
Hanson
I. M.
,
Trowsdate
J.
(
1991
)
A novel cysteine-rich sequence motif.
Cell
64
,
483
484
Goodwin
E. B.
,
Okkema
P. G.
,
Evans
T. C.
,
Kimble
J.
(
1993
)
Translational regulation of tra-2 by its 3untranslated region controls sexual identity in C. elegans.
Cell
75
,
329
339
Gorman
M.
,
Kuroda
M. I.
,
Baker
B. S.
(
1993
)
Regulation of the sex-specific binding of the maleless dosage compensation protein to the male X chromosome in Drosophila.
Cell
72
,
39
49
Guo
L.-H.
,
Stepien
P. P.
,
Tso
J. Y.
,
Brousseau
R.
,
Narang
S.
,
Thomas
D. Y.
,
Wu
R.
(
1984
)
Synthesis of human insulin gene. VIII. Construction of expression vectors for fused proinsulin production in Escherichia coli.
Gene
29
,
251
254
Ishida
A.
,
Asano
H.
,
Hasegawa
M.
,
Koseki
H.
,
Ono
T.
,
Yoshida
M. C.
,
Taniguchi
M.
,
Kanno
M.
(
1993
)
Cloning and chromosome mapping of the human Mel-18 gene which encodes a DNA-binding protein with a new ‘RING-finger’ motif.
Gene
129
,
249
255
Jeppesen
P.
,
Turner
B. M.
(
1993
)
The inactive X chromosome in female mammals is distinguished by a lack of histone H4 acetylation, a cytogenetic marker for gene expression.
Cell
74
,
281
289
Kuroda
M. I.
,
Kernan
M. J.
,
Kreber
R.
,
Ganetzky
B.
,
Baker
B. S.
(
1991
)
The maleless protein associates with the X chromosome to regulate dosage compensation in Drosophila.
Cell
66
,
935
947
Laski
F. A.
,
Rio
D. C.
,
Rubin
G. M.
(
1986
)
Tissue specificity of Drosophila P element transposition is regulated at the level of mRNA splicing.
Cell
44
,
7
19
Lee
C.
,
Hurwitz
J.
(
1993
)
Human RNA Helicase A is homologous to the maleless protein of Drosophila.
J. Biol. Chem
268
,
16822
16830
Lindsley
D. L.
,
Sandler
L.
,
Baker
B. S.
,
Carpenter
A. T. C.
,
Denell
R. E.
,
Hall
J. C.
,
Jacobs
P. A.
,
Miklos
G. L. G.
,
Davis
B. K.
,
Gethmann
R. C.
,
Hardy
R. W.
,
Hessler
A.
,
Miller
S. M.
,
Nozawa
H.
,
Parry
D. M.
,
Gould-Somero
M.
(
1972
)
Segmental aneuploidy and the genetic gross structure of the Drosophila genome.
Genetics
71
,
157
184
Lovering
R.
,
Hanson
I. M.
,
Borden
K. L. B.
,
Martin
S.
,
O'Reilly
N. J.
,
Evans
G. I.
,
Rahman
D.
,
Pappom
D. J. C.
,
Trowsdale
J.
,
Freemont
P. S.
(
1993
)
Identification and preliminary characterization of a protein motif related to the Zinc-finger.
Biochem
90
,
2112
2116
Lyon
M. F.
(
1992
)
Some milestones in the history of X-chromosome inactivation.
Annu. Rev. Genet
26
,
17
28
Madueño
E.
,
Papagiannakis
G.
,
Rimmington
G.
,
Saunders
R. D. C.
,
Savakis
C.
,
Siden-Kiamos
I.
,
Skavdis
G.
,
Spanos
L.
,
Trenear
J.
,
Adam
P.
,
Ashburner
M.
,
Benos
P.
,
Bolshakov
V. N.
,
Coulson
D.
,
Glover
D. M.
,
Herrmann
S.
,
Kafatos
F. C.
,
Louis
C.
,
Majerus
T.
,
Modolell
J.
(
1995
)
A physical map of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster: cosmid contigs and sequence tagged sites.
Genetics
1390
,
1631
1647
Mattox
W.
,
Ryner
L.
,
Baker
B. S.
(
1992
)
Autoregulation and multifunctionality among trans- acting factors that regulate alternative pre-mRNA processing.
J. Biol. Chem
267
,
19023
19026
McKeown
M.
,
Belote
J. M.
,
Boggs
R.T.
(
1988
)
Ectopicexpression of the female transformer gene product leadsto female differentiation of chromosomally male.
Drosophila
53
,
887
895
Ostareck-Lederer
A.
,
Ostareck
D. H.
,
Standart
N.
,
Thiele
B. J.
(
1994
)
Translation of 15-lipoxygenase mRNA is inhibited by a protein that binds to a repeated sequene in the 3untranslated region.
EMBO J
13
,
1476
1481
Palmer
M. J.
,
Mergner
V. A.
,
Richman
R.
,
Manning
J. E.
,
Kuroda
M. I.
,
Lucchesi
J. C.
(
1993
)
The male-specific lethal-one (msl-1) gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a novel protein that associates with the Xchromosome in males.
Genetics
134
,
545
557
Palmer
M. J.
,
Richman
R.
,
Richter
L.
,
Kuroda
M. I.
(
1994
)
Sex-specific regulation of the male-specific lethal-1 dosage compensation gene in Drosophila.
Genes Dev
8
,
698
706
Pruiin
G. J. M.
,
Slobbe
R. L.
,
van Vendrood
W. J.
(
1991
)
Analysis of protein-RNA interactions within Ro ribonucleoprotein complexes.
Nucl. Acids. Res
19
,
5173
5180
Ratelli
L.
,
Chan
C. S.
,
Pirrotta
V.
(
1993
)
Related chromosome binding sites for zeste, suppressors of zeste and Polycomb group proteins in Drosophila and their dependence on Enhancer of zeste function.
EMBO J
12
,
1513
1522
Sakashita
E.
,
Sakamoto
H.
(
1994
)
Characterization of RNA binding specificity of the Drosophila sex-lethal protein by in vitro ligand selection.
Nucl. Acids. Res
22
,
4082
4086
Samuels
M.E.
,
Bopp
D.
,
Colvin
R.A.
,
Roscigno
R.F.
,
Garcia-Blanco
M.A.
,
Schedl
P.
(
1994
)
RNA binding by Sxl proteins in vitro and in vivo.
Mol. Cell Biol
14
,
4975
90
Schatz
D.
,
Oettinger
G. M. A.
,
Baltimore
D.
(
1989
)
The V(D)J recombination activating gene.
Cell
59
,
1035
1048
Schild
D.
,
Glassner
B. J.
,
Mortimer
R. K.
,
Carlson
M.
,
Laurent
B. C.
(
1992
)
Identification of RAD16, a yeast excision repair gene homologous to the recombinational repair gene RAD54 and to the SNF2 gene involved in transcriptional activation.
Yeast
8
,
385
395
Turner
B. M.
,
Birley
A. J.
,
Lavender
J.
(
1992
)
Histone H4 isoforms acetylated at specific lysine residues define individual chromosomes and chromatin domains in Drosophila polytene nuclei.
Cell
69
,
375
384
von Arnim
A. G.
,
Deng
X.-W.
(
1993
)
Ring finger motif of Arabidopsis thaliana COP1 defines a new class of Zinc-binding domain.
J. Biol. Chem
268
,
19626
19631
This content is only available via PDF.